generics1.icl 115 KB
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//**************************************************************************************
// Generic programming features 
//**************************************************************************************

implementation module generics1

import StdEnv
import check
from checktypes import createClassDictionaries
/*2.0
from transform import ::Group
0.2*/
//1.3
from transform import Group
//3.1

import genericsupport

//**************************************************************************************
// Data types
//**************************************************************************************

:: FunDefs :== {#FunDef}
:: Modules :== {#CommonDefs}
:: DclModules :== {#DclModule}
:: Groups :== {!Group}
:: FunsAndGroups :== (!Index, !Index, ![FunDef], ![Group])

//**************************************************************************************
// Exported functions
//**************************************************************************************

convertGenerics :: 
		!Int 					// index of the main dcl module
		!NumberSet				// set of used modules
		!{#CommonDefs} 			// common definitions of all modules
		!{!Group} 				// groups of functions
		!*{# FunDef} 			// functions
		!*TypeDefInfos 			// type definition information of all modules
		!*Heaps 				// all heaps
		!*HashTable 			// needed for what creating class dictionaries
		!*PredefinedSymbols 	// predefined symbols
		!u:{# DclModule}		// dcl modules
		!*ErrorAdmin 			// to report errors
	->  ( !{#CommonDefs}		// common definitions of all modules
		, !{!Group}				// groups of functions
		, !*{# FunDef}			// function definitions
		, ![IndexRange]			// index ranges of generated functions
		, !*TypeDefInfos		// type definition infos
		, !*Heaps				// all heaps
		, !*HashTable			// needed for creating class dictinaries
		, !*PredefinedSymbols	// predefined symbols	
		, !u:{# DclModule}		// dcl modules
		, !*ErrorAdmin			// to report errors
		)
convertGenerics
		main_dcl_module_n 
		used_module_numbers
		modules 
		groups 
		funs 
		td_infos 
		heaps
		hash_table 
		u_predefs 
		dcl_modules 
		error

	//#! td_infos = td_infos ---> "************************* generic phase started ******************** "
	//#! funs = dump_funs 0 funs
	//#! dcl_modules = dump_dcl_modules 0 dcl_modules
		
	#! modules = {x \\ x <-: modules} 			// unique copy
	#! dcl_modules = { x \\ x <-: dcl_modules } 	// unique copy
	#! size_predefs = size u_predefs
	#! (predefs, u_predefs) = arrayCopyBegin u_predefs size_predefs // non-unique copy

	#! td_infos = clearTypeDefInfos td_infos
		//---> ("used module numbers ", main_dcl_module_n, numberSetToList used_module_numbers)
	#! (modules, heaps) = clearGenericDefs modules heaps 

	#! (iso_range, funs, groups, td_infos, modules, heaps, error)
		= buildGenericRepresentations 
			(main_dcl_module_n /*---> "====================== call buildGenericRepresentations"*/)
			predefs 
			funs groups td_infos modules heaps error
	| not error.ea_ok
		= (modules, groups, funs, [], td_infos, heaps, hash_table, u_predefs, dcl_modules, error)

	// build classes for each kind of each generic function
	#! (modules, dcl_modules, heaps, symbol_table, td_infos, error) 
		= buildClasses 
				main_dcl_module_n used_module_numbers 
				modules dcl_modules heaps hash_table.hte_symbol_heap td_infos error
			//---> ("====================== call buildClasses")
	#! hash_table = { hash_table & hte_symbol_heap = symbol_table }	
	| not error.ea_ok
		= (modules, groups, funs, [], td_infos, heaps, hash_table, u_predefs, dcl_modules, error)

	#! (instance_range, funs, groups, modules, dcl_modules, td_infos, heaps, error)
		= convertGenericCases main_dcl_module_n used_module_numbers predefs funs groups modules dcl_modules td_infos heaps error
			//---> ("====================== call convertGenericCases")

	| not error.ea_ok
		= (modules, groups, funs, [], td_infos, heaps, hash_table, u_predefs, dcl_modules, error)
	
	//#! funs = dump_funs 0 funs
	//#! dcl_modules = dump_dcl_modules 0 dcl_modules
	//#! error = error ---> "************************* generic phase completed ******************** "
	//| True = abort "generic phase aborted for testing\n"		
	= (modules, groups, funs, [iso_range, instance_range], td_infos, heaps, hash_table, u_predefs, dcl_modules, error)
where

	dump_funs n funs 
		| n == size funs
			= funs
			#! ({fun_symb, fun_type, fun_body}, funs) = funs ! [n]
			#! funs = funs
				//---> ("icl function ", fun_symb, n, fun_type, fun_body) 
			=  dump_funs (inc n) funs
	dump_dcl_modules n dcl_modules
		| n == size dcl_modules
			= dcl_modules			
			# ({dcl_functions}, dcl_modules) = dcl_modules ! [n]				
			= dump_dcl_modules (inc n) (dump_dcl_funs 0 dcl_functions dcl_modules)
				//---> ("dcl module", n)		
	dump_dcl_funs n dcl_funs dcl_modules
		| n == size dcl_funs
			= dcl_modules
			# {ft_symb, ft_type} = dcl_funs.[n]
			= dump_dcl_funs (inc n) dcl_funs dcl_modules
				//---> ("dcl function", ft_symb, n, ft_type)


//****************************************************************************************
// clear stuff that might have been left over
// from compilation of other icl modules
//****************************************************************************************

clearTypeDefInfos td_infos
	= clear_modules 0 td_infos
where
	clear_modules n td_infos
		| n == size td_infos
			= td_infos
			#! (td_infos1, td_infos) = replace td_infos n {}
			#! td_infos1 = clear_td_infos 0 td_infos1
			#! (_, td_infos) = replace td_infos n td_infos1
			= clear_modules (inc n) td_infos 
			
	clear_td_infos n td_infos 			
		| n == size td_infos
			= td_infos
			#! (td_info, td_infos) = td_infos![n]
			#! td_infos = {td_infos & [n] = {td_info & tdi_gen_rep = No}}
			= clear_td_infos (inc n) td_infos 

clearGenericDefs modules heaps
	= clear_module 0 modules  heaps
where	
	clear_module n modules heaps
		| n == size modules
			= (modules, heaps)
			#! ({com_generic_defs}, modules) = modules![n]
			#! (com_generic_defs, heaps) = updateArraySt clear_generic_def {x\\x<-:com_generic_defs} heaps 			
			#! modules = {modules & [n].com_generic_defs = com_generic_defs}
			= clear_module (inc n) modules heaps
			
	clear_generic_def _ generic_def=:{gen_name,gen_info_ptr} heaps=:{hp_generic_heap}
		#! (gen_info, hp_generic_heap) = readPtr gen_info_ptr hp_generic_heap
		#! gen_info = 
			{ gen_info 
			& gen_cases = []
			, gen_classes = createArray 32 []
			}	
		#! hp_generic_heap = writePtr gen_info_ptr gen_info hp_generic_heap
		= (generic_def, {heaps & hp_generic_heap = hp_generic_heap})
		
//****************************************************************************************
//	generic type representation
//****************************************************************************************

// generic representation is built for each type argument of
// generic cases of the current module
buildGenericRepresentations ::
		!Index
		!PredefinedSymbols
		!*FunDefs
		!Groups
		!*TypeDefInfos
		!*Modules
		!*Heaps
		!*ErrorAdmin
	->	( !IndexRange
		, !*FunDefs
		, !Groups
		, !*TypeDefInfos
		, !*Modules
		, !*Heaps
		, !*ErrorAdmin
		) 
buildGenericRepresentations main_module_index predefs funs groups td_infos modules heaps error
	
	#! size_funs = size funs
	#! size_groups = size groups
	#! ({com_gencase_defs}, modules) = modules ! [main_module_index]
			
	#! ((new_fun_index, new_group_index, new_funs, new_groups), td_infos, modules, heaps, error) 
		= foldArraySt on_gencase com_gencase_defs ((size_funs, size_groups, [], []), td_infos, modules, heaps, error)

	#! funs = arrayPlusRevList funs new_funs
	#! groups = arrayPlusRevList groups new_groups

	#! range = {ir_from = size_funs, ir_to = new_fun_index}

	= (range, funs, groups, td_infos, modules, heaps, error)
where 

	on_gencase index case_def=:{gc_type_cons,gc_name} st
		= build_generic_rep_if_needed gc_type_cons st 

	build_generic_rep_if_needed :: 
			!TypeCons !((!Index,!Index,![FunDef],![Group]), !*TypeDefInfos, !*{#CommonDefs}, !*Heaps, !*ErrorAdmin)	
		->  (!(!Index, !Index, ![FunDef], ![Group]), !*TypeDefInfos, !*{#CommonDefs}, !*Heaps, !*ErrorAdmin)
	build_generic_rep_if_needed (TypeConsSymb {type_index={glob_module,glob_object}, type_name}) (funs_and_groups, td_infos, modules, heaps, error)
		#! (type_def, modules) = modules![glob_module].com_type_defs.[glob_object]
		#! (td_info, td_infos) = td_infos![glob_module, glob_object]
		#! type_def_gi = {gi_module=glob_module,gi_index=glob_object}
		= case td_info.tdi_gen_rep of
			Yes _ 
				-> (funs_and_groups, td_infos, modules, heaps, error)
					//---> ("generic representation is already built", type_name)
			No 
				#! (gen_type_rep, funs_and_groups, modules, heaps, error)
					= buildGenericTypeRep type_def_gi main_module_index predefs funs_and_groups modules heaps error
							
				#! td_info = {td_info & tdi_gen_rep = Yes gen_type_rep}
				#! td_infos = {td_infos & [glob_module, glob_object] = td_info} 
				-> (funs_and_groups, td_infos, modules, heaps, error)					
					//---> ("build generic representation", type_name)
	build_generic_rep_if_needed _ st = st 
	
buildGenericTypeRep :: 
		!GlobalIndex 			// type def index
		!Index 					// main module index 
		!PredefinedSymbols 	
		!(!Index,!Index,![FunDef],![Group]) 
		!*{#CommonDefs} 
		!*Heaps 
		!*ErrorAdmin 
	->	( !GenericTypeRep
		, !(!Index, !Index, ![FunDef], ![Group])
		, !*{#CommonDefs} 
		, !*Heaps
		, !*ErrorAdmin
		)
buildGenericTypeRep type_index main_module_index predefs funs_and_groups modules heaps error
	# (type_def, modules) = modules![type_index.gi_module].com_type_defs.[type_index.gi_index]
	# (atype, modules,error) = buildStructureType type_index predefs modules error
	
	# (from_fun_ds, funs_and_groups, heaps, error)
		= buildConversionFrom type_index.gi_module type_def main_module_index predefs funs_and_groups heaps error

	# (to_fun_ds, funs_and_groups, heaps, error)
		= buildConversionTo type_index.gi_module type_def main_module_index predefs funs_and_groups heaps error

	# (iso_fun_ds, funs_and_groups, heaps, error)
		= buildConversionIso type_def from_fun_ds to_fun_ds main_module_index predefs funs_and_groups heaps error

	= ({gtr_type=atype,gtr_iso=iso_fun_ds}, funs_and_groups, modules, heaps, error)
		//---> ("buildGenericTypeRep", type_def.td_name, atype)
	
//========================================================================================
//	the structure type
//========================================================================================

buildStructureType :: 
		!GlobalIndex				// type definition module 
		!PredefinedSymbols
		!*{#CommonDefs}
		!*ErrorAdmin
	-> 	( !AType			// the structure type
		, !*{#CommonDefs}
		, !*ErrorAdmin
		)
buildStructureType {gi_module,gi_index} predefs modules error
	# (type_def=:{td_name}, modules) = modules![gi_module].com_type_defs.[gi_index]	
	# (common_defs, modules) = modules ! [gi_module]	
	# (atype, error) = build_type type_def common_defs error	
	= (atype, modules, error)
		//---> ("buildStructureType", td_name, atype)	
where 
	build_type {td_rhs=(AlgType alts)} common_defs error
		# cons_defs = [common_defs.com_cons_defs.[ds_index] \\ {ds_index} <- alts]
		# cons_args = [buildProductType cons_def.cons_type.st_args predefs \\ cons_def <- cons_defs]
		= (buildSumType cons_args predefs, error) 	
	build_type {td_rhs=(RecordType {rt_constructor={ds_index}})} common_defs error
		# cons_def = common_defs.com_cons_defs.[ds_index]
		= (buildProductType cons_def.cons_type.st_args predefs, error)
	build_type {td_rhs=(SynType type)} common_defs error
		= (type /* is that correct ???*/, error)
	build_type td=:{td_rhs=(AbstractType _),td_name, td_arity, td_args, td_pos} common_defs error
		= (makeAType TE TA_Multi, 
			reportError td_name td_pos "cannot build a generic representation of an abstract type" error)
		
// build a product of types
buildProductType :: ![AType] !PredefinedSymbols -> !AType
buildProductType types predefs 
	= listToBin build_pair build_unit types
where
	build_pair x y = buildPredefTypeApp PD_TypePAIR [x, y] predefs	
	build_unit  = buildPredefTypeApp PD_TypeUNIT [] predefs

// build a sum of types		
buildSumType :: ![AType] !PredefinedSymbols -> !AType
buildSumType types predefs 
	= listToBin build_either build_void types
where
	build_either x y = buildPredefTypeApp PD_TypeEITHER [x, y] predefs	
	build_void  = abort "sum of zero types\n"

// build a binary representation of a list
listToBin :: (a a -> a) a [a] -> a 
listToBin bin tip [] = tip
listToBin bin tip [x] = x
listToBin bin tip xs
	# (l,r) = splitAt ((length xs) / 2) xs
	= bin (listToBin bin tip l) (listToBin bin tip r)

// build application of a predefined type constructor 
buildPredefTypeApp :: !Int [AType] !PredefinedSymbols -> !AType
buildPredefTypeApp predef_index args predefs
	# {pds_module, pds_def} = predefs.[predef_index]
	# pds_ident = predefined_idents.[predef_index]
	# global_index = {glob_module = pds_module, glob_object = pds_def}
	# type_symb = MakeTypeSymbIdent global_index pds_ident (length args) 		  
	= makeAType (TA type_symb args) TA_Multi

//========================================================================================
//	conversions functions
//========================================================================================

// buildConversionIso
buildConversionIso :: 
		!CheckedTypeDef		// the type definition
		!DefinedSymbol		// from fun
		!DefinedSymbol	 	// to fun
		!Index				// main module
		!PredefinedSymbols		
		(!Index, !Index, ![FunDef], ![Group])
		!*Heaps
		!*ErrorAdmin
	-> 	( !DefinedSymbol
		, (!Index, !Index, ![FunDef], ![Group])
		, !*Heaps
		, !*ErrorAdmin
		)
buildConversionIso 
		type_def=:{td_name, td_pos}
		from_fun 
		to_fun
		main_dcl_module_n
		predefs
		funs_and_groups
		heaps 
		error
	#! (from_expr, heaps) 	= buildFunApp main_dcl_module_n from_fun [] heaps
	#! (to_expr, heaps) 	= buildFunApp main_dcl_module_n to_fun [] heaps	
	#! (iso_expr, heaps) 	= build_iso to_expr from_expr heaps
	
	#! ident = makeIdent ("iso" +++ td_name.id_name)
	#! (def_sym, funs_and_groups) = buildFunAndGroup ident [] iso_expr No main_dcl_module_n td_pos funs_and_groups
	= (def_sym, funs_and_groups, heaps, error)
		//---> ("buildConversionIso", td_name, let (_,_,fs,_) = funs_and_groups in hd fs)
where
	build_iso to_expr from_expr heaps 
		= buildPredefConsApp PD_ConsBimap [to_expr, from_expr] predefs heaps	
		
// conversion from type to generic
buildConversionTo ::
		!Index				// type def module
		!CheckedTypeDef 	// the type def
		!Index 				// main module
		!PredefinedSymbols
		!(!Index, !Index, ![FunDef], ![Group])
		!*Heaps	
		!*ErrorAdmin
	-> 	( !DefinedSymbol
		, (!Index, !Index, ![FunDef], ![Group])
		, !*Heaps
		, !*ErrorAdmin	
		)
buildConversionTo		
		type_def_mod 
		type_def=:{td_rhs, td_name, td_index, td_pos} 
		main_module_index
		predefs
		funs_and_groups
		heaps
		error
	# (arg_expr, arg_var, heaps) = buildVarExpr "x" heaps 
	# (body_expr, heaps, error) = 
		build_expr_for_type_rhs type_def_mod td_index td_rhs arg_expr heaps error
	# fun_name = makeIdent ("fromGenericTo" +++ td_name.id_name)
	| not error.ea_ok
		# (def_sym, funs_and_groups) 
			= (buildFunAndGroup fun_name [] EE No main_module_index td_pos funs_and_groups)
		= (def_sym, funs_and_groups, heaps, error)	
			//---> ("buildConversionTo failed", td_name)
		# (def_sym, funs_and_groups) 
			= (buildFunAndGroup fun_name [arg_var] body_expr No main_module_index td_pos funs_and_groups)
		= (def_sym, funs_and_groups, heaps, error)
			//---> ("buildConversionTo", td_name, let (_,_,fs,_) = funs_and_groups in hd fs)
where
	// build conversion for type rhs
	build_expr_for_type_rhs :: 
			!Int 				// type def module
			!Int 				// type def index 
			!TypeRhs			// type def rhs 
			!Expression			// expression of the function argument variable   
			!*Heaps 
			!*ErrorAdmin
		-> 	( !Expression		// generated expression
			, !*Heaps	// state
			, !*ErrorAdmin
			)
 	build_expr_for_type_rhs type_def_mod type_def_index (AlgType def_symbols) arg_expr heaps error
		= build_expr_for_conses type_def_mod type_def_index def_symbols arg_expr heaps error
	build_expr_for_type_rhs type_def_mod type_def_index (RecordType {rt_constructor}) arg_expr heaps error		
		= build_expr_for_conses type_def_mod type_def_index [rt_constructor] arg_expr  heaps error
	build_expr_for_type_rhs type_def_mod type_def_index (AbstractType _) arg_expr  heaps error
		#! error = checkErrorWithIdentPos (newPosition td_name td_pos) "cannot build isomorphisms for an abstract type" error
		= (EE, heaps, error)
	build_expr_for_type_rhs type_def_mod type_def_index (SynType _) arg_expr  heaps error
		#! error = checkErrorWithIdentPos (newPosition td_name td_pos) "cannot build isomorphisms for a synonym type" error
		= (EE, heaps, error)
	
	// build conversion for constructors of a type def 	
	build_expr_for_conses type_def_mod type_def_index cons_def_syms arg_expr heaps error
		# (case_alts, heaps, error) = 
			build_exprs_for_conses 0 (length cons_def_syms) type_def_mod cons_def_syms  heaps error
		# case_patterns = AlgebraicPatterns {glob_module = type_def_mod, glob_object = type_def_index} case_alts
		# (case_expr, heaps) = buildCaseExpr arg_expr case_patterns heaps
		= (case_expr, heaps, error)	
			//---> (free_vars, case_expr)		
	
	// build conversions for a constructor 	
	build_exprs_for_conses :: !Int !Int !Int ![DefinedSymbol] !*Heaps !*ErrorAdmin
		-> ([AlgebraicPattern], !*Heaps, !*ErrorAdmin)
	build_exprs_for_conses i n type_def_mod [] heaps error = ([], heaps, error) 	
	build_exprs_for_conses i n type_def_mod [cons_def_sym:cons_def_syms] heaps error
		#! (alt, heaps, error) = build_expr_for_cons i n type_def_mod cons_def_sym heaps error
		#! (alts, heaps, error) =  build_exprs_for_conses (i+1) n type_def_mod cons_def_syms heaps error 		
		= ([alt:alts], heaps, error)
					
	// build conversion for a constructor	
	build_expr_for_cons :: !Int !Int !Int !DefinedSymbol !*Heaps !*ErrorAdmin 
		-> (AlgebraicPattern, !*Heaps, !*ErrorAdmin)
	build_expr_for_cons 	
		i n type_def_mod def_symbol=:{ds_ident, ds_arity}
		heaps error
	
		#! names = ["x" +++ toString (i+1) +++ toString k \\ k <- [1..ds_arity]]
		#! (var_exprs, vars, heaps) = buildVarExprs names heaps 
		#! (expr, heaps) = build_prod var_exprs predefs heaps		
		#! (expr, heaps) = build_sum i n expr predefs heaps
				
		#! alg_pattern = {
			ap_symbol = {glob_module = type_def_mod, glob_object = def_symbol},
			ap_vars = vars,
			ap_expr = expr,
			ap_position = NoPos
			}
		= (alg_pattern, heaps, error)	
	
	build_sum :: !Int !Int !Expression !PredefinedSymbols !*Heaps -> (!Expression, !*Heaps)
	build_sum i n expr predefs heaps
		| n == 0 	= abort "build sum of zero elements\n"
		| i >= n	= abort "error building sum"
		| n == 1 	= (expr, heaps)
		| i < (n/2) 
			# (expr, heaps) = build_sum i (n/2) expr predefs heaps
			= build_left expr heaps
		| otherwise
			# (expr, heaps) = build_sum (i - (n/2)) (n - (n/2)) expr predefs heaps
			= build_right expr heaps
	where
		build_left x heaps = buildPredefConsApp PD_ConsLEFT [x] predefs heaps
		build_right x heaps = buildPredefConsApp PD_ConsRIGHT [x] predefs heaps
				
	build_prod :: ![Expression] !PredefinedSymbols !*Heaps -> (!Expression, !*Heaps)
	build_prod [] predefs heaps = build_unit heaps
	where
		build_unit heaps = buildPredefConsApp PD_ConsUNIT [] predefs heaps 	
	build_prod [expr] predefs heaps = (expr, heaps)
	build_prod exprs predefs heaps
		# (lexprs, rexprs) = splitAt ((length exprs)/2) exprs  
		# (lexpr, heaps) = build_prod lexprs predefs heaps
		# (rexpr, heaps) = build_prod rexprs predefs heaps
		= build_pair lexpr rexpr heaps
	where
		build_pair x y heaps = buildPredefConsApp PD_ConsPAIR [x, y] predefs heaps
			
buildConversionFrom	::	
		!Index				// type def module
		!CheckedTypeDef 	// the type def
		!Index 				// main module
		!PredefinedSymbols
		!(!Index, !Index, ![FunDef], ![Group])
		!*Heaps	
		!*ErrorAdmin
	-> 	( !DefinedSymbol
		, (!Index, !Index, ![FunDef], ![Group])
		, !*Heaps
		, !*ErrorAdmin	
		)
buildConversionFrom		
		type_def_mod 
		type_def=:{td_rhs, td_name, td_index, td_pos} 
		main_module_index
		predefs
		funs_and_groups
		heaps
		error
	# (body_expr, arg_var, heaps, error) = 
		build_expr_for_type_rhs type_def_mod td_rhs heaps error
	# fun_name = makeIdent ("toGenericFrom" +++ td_name.id_name)
	| not error.ea_ok
		# (def_sym, funs_and_groups) 
			= (buildFunAndGroup fun_name [] EE No main_module_index td_pos funs_and_groups)
		= (def_sym, funs_and_groups, heaps, error)	
			//---> ("buildConversionFrom failed", td_name)
		# (def_sym, funs_and_groups) 
			= (buildFunAndGroup fun_name [arg_var] body_expr No main_module_index td_pos funs_and_groups)
		= (def_sym, funs_and_groups, heaps, error)
			//---> ("buildConversionFrom", td_name, let (_,_,fs,_) = funs_and_groups in hd fs)
where
	// build expression for type def rhs
	build_expr_for_type_rhs :: 
			!Index				// type def module
			!TypeRhs			// type rhs
			!*Heaps
			!*ErrorAdmin	
		-> 	( !Expression		// body expresssion
			, !FreeVar
			, !*Heaps
			, !*ErrorAdmin
			)		
	build_expr_for_type_rhs type_def_mod (AlgType def_symbols) heaps error
		= build_sum type_def_mod def_symbols heaps error
	build_expr_for_type_rhs type_def_mod (RecordType {rt_constructor}) heaps error				
		= build_sum type_def_mod [rt_constructor] heaps	error
	build_expr_for_type_rhs type_def_mod (AbstractType _) heaps error
		#! error = reportError td_name td_pos "cannot build isomorphisms for an abstract type" error
		= (EE, undef, heaps, error)
	build_expr_for_type_rhs type_def_mod (SynType _) heaps error
		#! error = reportError td_name td_pos "cannot build isomorphisms for a synonym type" error
		= (EE, undef, heaps, error)
	
	// build expression for sums
	build_sum :: 
			!Index 
			![DefinedSymbol] 
			!*Heaps 
			!*ErrorAdmin
		-> 	( !Expression
			, !FreeVar			// top variable
			, !*Heaps
			, !*ErrorAdmin
			)
	build_sum type_def_mod [] heaps error
		= abort "algebraic type with no constructors!\n"
	build_sum type_def_mod [def_symbol] heaps error
		#! (cons_app_expr, cons_arg_vars, heaps) = build_cons_app type_def_mod def_symbol heaps
		#! (alt_expr, var, heaps) = build_prod cons_app_expr cons_arg_vars heaps 		
		= (alt_expr, var, heaps, error)
	build_sum type_def_mod def_symbols heaps error
		#! (left_def_syms, right_def_syms) = splitAt ((length def_symbols) /2) def_symbols
	
		#! (left_expr, left_var, heaps, error) 
			= build_sum type_def_mod left_def_syms heaps error

		#! (right_expr, right_var, heaps, error) 
			= build_sum type_def_mod right_def_syms heaps error
	
		#! (case_expr, var, heaps) = 
			build_case_either left_var left_expr right_var right_expr heaps
		= (case_expr, var, heaps, error)
	
	// build expression for products
	build_prod :: 
			!Expression   					// result of the case on product
			![FreeVar] 						// list of variables of the constructor pattern
			!*Heaps
		-> 	( !Expression					// generated product
			, !FreeVar						// top variable
			, !*Heaps
			)
	build_prod expr [] heaps
		= build_case_unit expr heaps	
	build_prod expr [cons_arg_var] heaps
		= (expr, cons_arg_var, heaps)	
	build_prod expr cons_arg_vars heaps
		#! (left_vars, right_vars) = splitAt ((length cons_arg_vars) /2) cons_arg_vars		 
		#! (expr, left_var, heaps) = build_prod expr left_vars heaps
		#! (expr, right_var, heaps) = build_prod expr right_vars heaps		
		#! (case_expr, var, heaps) = build_case_pair left_var right_var expr heaps		
		= (case_expr, var, heaps) 
	
	// build constructor applicarion expression
	build_cons_app :: !Index !DefinedSymbol !*Heaps 
		-> (!Expression, ![FreeVar], !*Heaps)
	build_cons_app cons_mod def_symbol=:{ds_arity} heaps
		#! names = ["x"  +++ toString k \\ k <- [1..ds_arity]]
		#! (var_exprs, vars, heaps) = buildVarExprs names heaps 
		#! (expr, heaps) = buildConsApp cons_mod def_symbol var_exprs heaps
	 	= (expr, vars, heaps)

	// build case expressions for PAIR, EITHER and UNIT
	build_case_unit body_expr heaps
		# unit_pat = buildPredefConsPattern PD_ConsUNIT [] body_expr predefs
		# {pds_module, pds_def} = predefs.[PD_TypeUNIT]
		# case_patterns = AlgebraicPatterns {glob_module = pds_module, glob_object = pds_def} [unit_pat]
		= build_case_expr case_patterns heaps
		
	build_case_pair var1 var2 body_expr heaps
		# pair_pat = buildPredefConsPattern PD_ConsPAIR [var1, var2] body_expr predefs	
		# {pds_module, pds_def} = predefs.[PD_TypePAIR]
		# case_patterns = AlgebraicPatterns {glob_module = pds_module, glob_object = pds_def} [pair_pat]	
		= build_case_expr case_patterns heaps
	
	build_case_either left_var left_expr right_var right_expr heaps
		# left_pat = buildPredefConsPattern PD_ConsLEFT [left_var] left_expr predefs
		# right_pat = buildPredefConsPattern PD_ConsRIGHT [right_var] right_expr predefs
		# {pds_module, pds_def} = predefs.[PD_TypeEITHER]
		# case_patterns = AlgebraicPatterns {glob_module = pds_module, glob_object = pds_def} [left_pat, right_pat]
		= build_case_expr case_patterns heaps

	// case with a variable as the selector expression
	build_case_expr case_patterns heaps
		# (var_expr, var, heaps) = buildVarExpr "c" heaps
		# (case_expr, heaps) = buildCaseExpr var_expr case_patterns heaps
		= (case_expr, var, heaps)
		

//****************************************************************************************
// build kind indexed classes 
//****************************************************************************************

buildClasses :: 
		!Int
		!NumberSet 
		!*{#CommonDefs} 
		!*{#.DclModule} 
		!*Heaps 
		!*SymbolTable 
		!*TypeDefInfos
		!*ErrorAdmin 
	->	(.{#CommonDefs}
		,.{#DclModule}
		,.Heaps
		,.SymbolTable
		,.TypeDefInfos
		,.ErrorAdmin
		)
buildClasses main_module_index used_module_numbers modules dcl_modules heaps symbol_table td_infos error
	#! (common_defs=:{com_class_defs, com_member_defs}, modules) = modules ! [main_module_index]
	#! num_classes = size com_class_defs
	#! num_members = size com_member_defs

/*
	#! (modules, (classes, members, new_num_classes, new_num_members, heaps, td_infos, error)) 
		= mapGenericCaseDefs on_gencase modules ([], [], num_classes, num_members, heaps, td_infos, error)
*/
	#! (modules, (classes, members, new_num_classes, new_num_members, heaps, td_infos, error)) 
		= build_modules 0 modules ([], [], num_classes, num_members, heaps, td_infos, error)

	// obtain common definitions again because com_gencase_defs are updated 
	#! (common_defs, modules) = modules ! [main_module_index]	
	# common_defs = 
		{ common_defs 
		& com_class_defs = arrayPlusRevList com_class_defs classes
		, com_member_defs = arrayPlusRevList com_member_defs members
		}
		
	#! (common_defs, dcl_modules, heaps, symbol_table) 
		= build_class_dictionaries common_defs dcl_modules heaps symbol_table
	
	#! modules = {modules & [main_module_index] = common_defs}	
	= (modules, dcl_modules, heaps, symbol_table, td_infos, error)  
where
	build_modules module_index modules st
		| module_index == size modules
			= (modules, st)
			#! (common_defs=:{com_gencase_defs}, modules) = modules![module_index] 
			#! (com_gencase_defs, modules, st) 
				= build_module module_index com_gencase_defs modules st 
			#! modules = 
				{ modules 
				& [module_index] = {common_defs & com_gencase_defs = com_gencase_defs }
				} 
			= build_modules (inc module_index) modules st

	build_module module_index com_gencase_defs modules st
		| inNumberSet module_index used_module_numbers
			#! com_gencase_defs = {x\\x<-:com_gencase_defs} 
			= build_module1 module_index 0 com_gencase_defs modules st
			= (com_gencase_defs, modules, st)

	build_module1 module_index index com_gencase_defs modules st
		| index == size com_gencase_defs
			= (com_gencase_defs, modules, st)
			#! (gencase, com_gencase_defs) = com_gencase_defs ! [index]
			#! (gencase, modules, st) = on_gencase module_index index gencase modules st
			#! com_gencase_defs = {com_gencase_defs & [index] = gencase} 	
			= build_module1 module_index (inc index) com_gencase_defs modules st

	on_gencase :: 
			!Index 
			!Index 
			!GenericCaseDef 
			!*Modules 
			(![ClassDef], ![MemberDef], !Index, Index, !*Heaps, !*TypeDefInfos, !*ErrorAdmin)
		->  ( !GenericCaseDef
			, !*Modules 
			, (![ClassDef], ![MemberDef], !Index, Index, !*Heaps, !*TypeDefInfos, !*ErrorAdmin)
			)
	on_gencase 
			module_index index 
			gencase=:{gc_name,gc_generic, gc_type_cons} 
			modules
			(classes, members, class_index, member_index, heaps, td_infos, error)

		#! (gen_def, modules) = modules ! [gc_generic.gi_module].com_generic_defs.[gc_generic.gi_index] 
		#! (kind, td_infos) = get_kind_of_type_cons gc_type_cons td_infos

		//#! kinds = partially_applied_kinds kind
		#! st = build_class_if_needed gen_def kind (classes, members, class_index, member_index, modules, heaps, error)	

		// build classes needed for shorthand instances
		#! (classes, members, class_index, member_index, modules, heaps, error)
			= case kind of 
				KindConst -> st
				KindArrow ks
					-> foldSt (build_class_if_needed gen_def) [KindConst:ks] st 
				
		#! gencase = { gencase & gc_kind = kind }				
		= (gencase, modules, (classes, members, class_index, member_index, heaps, td_infos, error))

	build_class_if_needed gen_def kind (classes, members, class_index, member_index, modules, heaps, error)
		#! (opt_class_info, heaps) = lookup_generic_class_info gen_def kind heaps
		= case opt_class_info of
			No 
				#! (class_def, member_def, modules, heaps, error) 
					= buildClassAndMember main_module_index class_index member_index kind gen_def modules heaps error 
				#! class_info = 
					{	gci_kind = kind
					,	gci_module = main_module_index
					,	gci_class = class_index
					,	gci_member = member_index
					}
				#! heaps = add_generic_class_info gen_def class_info heaps
				-> ([class_def:classes], [member_def:members], inc class_index, inc member_index, modules, heaps, error)
			Yes class_info	
				-> (classes, members, class_index, member_index, modules, heaps, error)
	
	partially_applied_kinds KindConst 
		= [KindConst]
	partially_applied_kinds (KindArrow kinds) 
		= do_it kinds
	where
		do_it [] = [KindConst]
		do_it all_ks=:[k:ks] = [(KindArrow all_ks) : do_it ks] 
				
	get_kind_of_type_cons :: !TypeCons !*TypeDefInfos -> (!TypeKind, !*TypeDefInfos)
	get_kind_of_type_cons (TypeConsBasic _) td_infos 
		= (KindConst, td_infos)
	get_kind_of_type_cons TypeConsArrow td_infos
		= (KindArrow [KindConst,KindConst], td_infos)
	get_kind_of_type_cons (TypeConsSymb {type_name, type_index}) td_infos
		#! ({tdi_kinds}, td_infos) = td_infos ! [type_index.glob_module,type_index.glob_object]
		= (if (isEmpty tdi_kinds) KindConst (KindArrow tdi_kinds), td_infos)
	get_kind_of_type_cons (TypeConsVar tv) td_infos
		= (KindConst, td_infos)

	lookup_generic_class_info {gen_info_ptr} kind heaps=:{hp_generic_heap}
		#! ({gen_classes}, hp_generic_heap) = readPtr gen_info_ptr hp_generic_heap
		= (lookupGenericClassInfo kind gen_classes
			, {heaps & hp_generic_heap = hp_generic_heap})

	add_generic_class_info	{gen_info_ptr} class_info heaps=:{hp_generic_heap}	
		#! (gen_info=:{gen_classes}, hp_generic_heap) = readPtr gen_info_ptr hp_generic_heap
		#! gen_classes = addGenericClassInfo class_info gen_classes
		#! hp_generic_heap = writePtr gen_info_ptr {gen_info&gen_classes=gen_classes} hp_generic_heap
		= {heaps & hp_generic_heap = hp_generic_heap}
			
	build_class_dictionaries			
			common_defs dcl_modules
			heaps=:{hp_type_heaps=hp_type_heaps=:{th_vars}, hp_var_heap}
			symbol_table 
		#! class_defs = { x \\ x <-: common_defs.com_class_defs } // make unique copy
		#  type_defs = { x \\ x <-: common_defs.com_type_defs } // make unique copy
		#  cons_defs = { x \\ x <-: common_defs.com_cons_defs } // make unique copy
		#  selector_defs = { x \\ x <-: common_defs.com_selector_defs } // make unique copy
		#  (size_type_defs,type_defs) = usize type_defs 
		#! (new_type_defs, new_selector_defs, new_cons_defs,_,type_defs,selector_defs,cons_defs,class_defs, dcl_modules, th_vars, hp_var_heap, symbol_table) =
				createClassDictionaries
					False 
					main_module_index 
					size_type_defs
					(size common_defs.com_selector_defs) 
					(size common_defs.com_cons_defs) 
					type_defs selector_defs cons_defs class_defs dcl_modules th_vars hp_var_heap symbol_table

		#! common_defs = { common_defs & 
			com_class_defs = class_defs, 
			com_type_defs = arrayPlusList type_defs new_type_defs,
			com_selector_defs = arrayPlusList selector_defs new_selector_defs,
			com_cons_defs = arrayPlusList cons_defs new_cons_defs}

		#! heaps = {heaps & hp_var_heap = hp_var_heap, hp_type_heaps = {hp_type_heaps & th_vars = th_vars}} 
		#! modules = { modules & [module_index] = common_defs } 		
		= (common_defs, dcl_modules, heaps, symbol_table)		


// limitations:
// - context restrictions on generic variables are not allowed
buildMemberType :: 
		!GenericDef 
		!TypeKind 
		!TypeVar 
		!*Modules
		!*TypeHeaps 
		!*GenericHeap
		!*ErrorAdmin
	->	( !SymbolType
		, !*Modules
		, !*TypeHeaps
		, !*GenericHeap
		, !*ErrorAdmin
		)
buildMemberType {gen_name,gen_pos,gen_type,gen_vars} kind class_var modules th gh error
	#! (kind_indexed_st, gatvs, th, error) 
		= buildKindIndexedType gen_type gen_vars kind gen_name gen_pos th error
			//---> ("buildMemberType called for", gen_name, kind, gen_type)
	#! (member_st, th, error) 
		= replace_generic_vars_with_class_var kind_indexed_st gatvs kind th error

	#! th = assertSymbolType member_st th
	#! th = assertSymbolType gen_type th
					
	= (member_st, modules, th, gh, error)
		//---> ("buildMemberType returns", gen_name, kind, member_st)
where

	replace_generic_vars_with_class_var st atvs kind th error			
		#! th = subst_gvs atvs th
			//---> ("replace_generic_vars_with_class_var called for", atvs, st)
		#! (new_st, th) = applySubstInSymbolType st th
		= (new_st, th, error)
			//---> ("replace_generic_vars_with_class_var returns", new_st)
	where
		subst_gvs atvs th=:{th_vars, th_attrs}
			#! tvs = [atv_variable \\ {atv_variable} <- atvs ]
			#! avs = [av \\ {atv_attribute=TA_Var av} <- atvs ]
			
			# th_vars = foldSt subst_tv tvs th_vars
		
/*			 			
			# th_attrs = case kind of
					KindConst -> case avs of 
						[av:avs] 	-> foldSt (subst_av av) avs th_attrs
						[] 			-> th_attrs
					_ -> th_attrs	
*/
			# th_attrs = case avs of 
				[av:avs]	-> foldSt (subst_av av) avs th_attrs
				[] 			-> th_attrs

 			= { th & th_vars = th_vars, th_attrs = th_attrs }
		
		subst_tv {tv_info_ptr} th_vars
			= writePtr tv_info_ptr (TVI_Type (TV class_var)) th_vars

		subst_av av {av_info_ptr} th_attrs
			= writePtr av_info_ptr (AVI_Attr (TA_Var av)) th_attrs
				//---> ("(1) writePtr av_info_ptr", ptrToInt av_info_ptr, av)

buildClassAndMember 
		module_index class_index member_index kind 
		gen_def=:{gen_name, gen_pos} modules heaps error
	#! (class_var, heaps) = fresh_class_var heaps
	#! (member_def, modules, heaps, error) 
		= build_class_member class_var modules heaps error	
	#! class_def = build_class class_var member_def
	= (class_def, member_def, modules, heaps, error)
		//---> ("buildClassAndMember", gen_def.gen_name, kind)
where
	fresh_class_var heaps=:{hp_type_heaps=th=:{th_vars}}
		# (tv, th_vars) = freshTypeVar (makeIdent "class_var") th_vars
		= (tv, {heaps & hp_type_heaps = { th & th_vars = th_vars }})

	class_ident = genericIdentToClassIdent gen_def.gen_name kind 
	member_ident = genericIdentToMemberIdent gen_def.gen_name kind 
	class_ds = {ds_index = class_index, ds_ident = class_ident, ds_arity = 1}

	build_class_member class_var modules heaps=:{hp_var_heap, hp_type_heaps, hp_generic_heap} error
		#! (type_ptr, hp_var_heap) = newPtr VI_Empty hp_var_heap 
		#! (tc_var_ptr, hp_var_heap) = newPtr VI_Empty hp_var_heap 
		#! type_context = 
			{	tc_class = {glob_module = module_index, glob_object=class_ds}
			,	tc_types = [ TV class_var ] 
			,	tc_var = tc_var_ptr 
			}
		#! (member_type, modules, hp_type_heaps, hp_generic_heap, error) 
			= buildMemberType gen_def kind class_var modules hp_type_heaps hp_generic_heap error
		#! member_type = { member_type & st_context = [type_context : member_type.st_context] }
		#! member_def = {
			me_symb = member_ident, 
			me_class = {glob_module = module_index, glob_object = class_index},
			me_offset = 0,
			me_type = member_type,
			me_type_ptr = type_ptr,				// empty
			me_class_vars = [class_var], 		// the same variable as in the class
			me_pos = gen_pos,
			me_priority = NoPrio
			}
				//---> ("member_type", member_type)
		= (member_def, modules, {heaps & hp_type_heaps = hp_type_heaps, hp_var_heap = hp_var_heap, hp_generic_heap = hp_generic_heap}, error)
	build_class class_var member_def=:{me_type}
		#! class_member = 
			{ ds_ident = member_ident
			, ds_index = member_index
			, ds_arity = me_type.st_arity
			}
		#! class_dictionary = 
			{ ds_ident = class_ident 
			, ds_arity = 0 
			, ds_index = NoIndex/*index in the type def table, filled in later*/ 
			}
		#! class_def = { 
			class_name = class_ident, 
			class_arity = 1,  
			class_args = [class_var],
		    class_context = [], 
		    class_pos = gen_pos, 
		    class_members = createArray 1 class_member, 
		    class_cons_vars = 0, // dotted class variables
		    class_dictionary = class_dictionary,
		    class_arg_kinds = [kind]
		    }	 
			
		= class_def	

							
//****************************************************************************************
// Convert generic cases 
//****************************************************************************************
convertGenericCases ::
		!Index					// current module
		!NumberSet				// used module numbers
		!PredefinedSymbols
		!*{#FunDef}	
		!{!Group}			
		!*{#CommonDefs}
		!*{#DclModule}
		!*TypeDefInfos
		!*Heaps
		!*ErrorAdmin
	-> 	( !IndexRange			// created instance functions
		, !*{#FunDef}			// added instance functions
		, !{!Group}				// added instance groups
		, !*{#CommonDefs}		// added instances
		, !*{#DclModule}			// updated function types
		, !*TypeDefInfos
		, !*Heaps
		, !*ErrorAdmin
		) 		
convertGenericCases 
		main_module_index used_module_numbers 
		predefs funs groups modules dcl_modules td_infos heaps error

	#! (first_fun_index, funs) = usize funs
	#! first_group_index = size groups
	#! fun_info = (first_fun_index, first_group_index, [], [])

	#! first_instance_index = size main_module_instances	
	#! instance_info = (first_instance_index, [])
	
	#! (modules1, dcl_modules, (fun_info, instance_info, funs, td_infos, heaps, error)) 
		= convert_modules 0 modules1 dcl_modules (fun_info, instance_info, funs, td_infos, heaps, error)
	
	#! (fun_index, group_index, new_funs, new_groups) = fun_info
	#! funs = arrayPlusRevList funs new_funs
	#! groups = arrayPlusRevList groups new_groups
	
	#! (instance_index, new_instances) = instance_info 
	#! com_instance_defs = arrayPlusRevList main_module_instances new_instances

	#! main_common_defs = {main_common_defs & com_instance_defs = com_instance_defs}	
	#! modules1 = {modules1 & [main_module_index] = main_common_defs}
	
	#! instance_fun_range = {ir_from=first_fun_index, ir_to=fun_index}	 
	= (instance_fun_range, funs, groups, modules1, dcl_modules, td_infos, heaps, error)
where

	(main_common_defs, modules1) = modules ! [main_module_index]
	main_module_classes = main_common_defs.com_class_defs
	main_module_members = main_common_defs.com_member_defs
	main_module_instances = main_common_defs.com_instance_defs

	convert_modules ::
			!Index
			!*{#CommonDefs}
			!*{#DclModule}
			( FunsAndGroups
			, (!Index, ![ClassInstance])
			, !*{#FunDef}
			, !*TypeDefInfos
			, !*Heaps
			, !*ErrorAdmin
			)
		-> 	(!*{#CommonDefs}
			,*{#DclModule} 
			,	( FunsAndGroups
				, (!Index, ![ClassInstance])
				, !*{#FunDef}
			 	, !*TypeDefInfos
				, !*Heaps
				, !*ErrorAdmin
				)
			)			
	convert_modules module_index modules dcl_modules st
		| module_index == size modules
			= (modules, dcl_modules, st)
			#! (common_defs=:{com_gencase_defs}, modules) = modules ! [module_index]
			#! (dcl_module=:{dcl_functions}, dcl_modules) = dcl_modules ! [module_index]
			#! (dcl_functions, modules, st) 
				= convert_module module_index com_gencase_defs {x\\x<-:dcl_functions} modules st  
			#! dcl_modules = {dcl_modules & [module_index] = {dcl_module & dcl_functions = dcl_functions}} 
			= convert_modules (inc module_index) modules dcl_modules st

	convert_module module_index com_gencase_defs dcl_functions modules st
		| inNumberSet module_index used_module_numbers		 
			#! dcl_functions = {x\\x<-:dcl_functions}
			= foldArraySt (convert_gencase module_index) 
				com_gencase_defs (dcl_functions, modules, st)
			= (dcl_functions, modules, st)

	convert_gencase :: 
			!Index
			!Index
			!GenericCaseDef
			(!*{#FunType}
			,!*Modules
			,	( FunsAndGroups
			 	, (!Index, ![ClassInstance])
			 	, !*{#FunDef}
			 	, !*TypeDefInfos
			 	, !*Heaps
			 	, !*ErrorAdmin
			 	)
			)
		-> (!*{#FunType}
			,!*Modules
			,	( FunsAndGroups
			 	, (!Index, ![ClassInstance])
			 	, !*{#FunDef}
			 	, !*TypeDefInfos
			 	, !*Heaps
			 	, !*ErrorAdmin
			 	)
			)					
	convert_gencase module_index gc_index gencase=:{gc_name, gc_type} st
		#! st = build_main_instance module_index gc_index gencase st	
		#! st = build_shorthand_instance_if_needed module_index gc_index gencase st	
		= st
			//---> ("convert gencase", gc_name, gc_type)

	build_main_instance module_index gc_index 
			gencase=:{gc_name, gc_kind, gc_generic, gc_pos, gc_type, gc_type_cons, gc_body = GCB_FunIndex fun_index} 
			(dcl_functions, modules, (fun_info, ins_info, fun_defs, td_infos, heaps, error))
		#! ({gen_classes}, modules, heaps) 
			= get_generic_info gc_generic modules heaps			
		#  (Yes class_info) 
			= lookupGenericClassInfo gc_kind gen_classes
			
		#! {class_members} 
			= main_module_classes . [class_info.gci_class] 		
		#! member_def 
			= main_module_members . [class_members.[0].ds_index]

		#! ins_type = 
			{	it_vars	= case gc_type_cons of 
					TypeConsVar tv 	-> [tv]
					_				-> []
			,	it_types = [gc_type]
			,	it_attr_vars = []
			,	it_context = []
			}

		#! (fun_type, heaps, error)
			= determine_type_of_member_instance member_def ins_type heaps error

		#! (dcl_functions, heaps) 
			= update_dcl_function fun_index gencase fun_type dcl_functions heaps

		#! (fun_info, fun_defs, td_infos, modules, heaps, error) 
				= update_icl_function_if_needed 
						module_index 
						fun_index gencase fun_type 
						fun_info fun_defs td_infos modules heaps error

		#! (fun_info, ins_info, heaps)
			= build_instance_and_member module_index class_info.gci_class gencase fun_type ins_type fun_info ins_info heaps  
		
		= (dcl_functions, modules, (fun_info, ins_info, fun_defs, td_infos, heaps, error))

	build_shorthand_instance_if_needed module_index gc_index gencase=:{gc_kind=KindConst} st
		= st
	build_shorthand_instance_if_needed 
			module_index gc_index 
			gencase=:{gc_name, gc_generic, gc_kind=KindArrow arg_kinds, gc_type} 
			(dcl_functions, modules, (fun_info, ins_info, fun_defs, td_infos, heaps, error))

		#! (star_class_info, (modules, heaps)) 
			= get_class_for_kind gc_generic KindConst (modules, heaps)

		#! (arg_class_infos, (modules, heaps)) 
			= mapSt (get_class_for_kind gc_generic) arg_kinds (modules, heaps)

		#! {class_members} 
			= main_module_classes . [star_class_info.gci_class] 		
		#! member_def 
			= main_module_members . [class_members.[0].ds_index]

		#! (ins_type, heaps) 
			= build_instance_type gc_type arg_class_infos heaps

		#! (fun_type, heaps, error)
			= determine_type_of_member_instance member_def ins_type heaps error
		
		#! (memfun_ds, fun_info, heaps) 
			= build_shorthand_instance_member module_index gencase fun_type arg_class_infos fun_info heaps
		
		#! ins_info 
			= build_class_instance star_class_info.gci_class gencase memfun_ds ins_type ins_info
				
		= (dcl_functions, modules, (fun_info, ins_info, fun_defs, td_infos, heaps, error))
	where
		build_instance_type type class_infos heaps=:{hp_type_heaps=th=:{th_vars},hp_var_heap}
			#! arity = length class_infos
			#! type_var_names = [makeIdent ("a" +++ toString i) \\ i <- [1 .. arity]]
			#! (type_vars, th_vars) = mapSt freshTypeVar type_var_names th_vars 
			#! type_var_types = [TV tv \\ tv <- type_vars] 	
			#! new_type_args = [makeAType t TA_Multi \\ t <- type_var_types]
			
			#! type = fill_type_args type new_type_args	
			
			#! (contexts, hp_var_heap) 
				= zipWithSt build_context class_infos type_vars hp_var_heap
			
			#! ins_type = 
				{	it_vars	= type_vars
				,	it_types = [type]
				,	it_attr_vars = []
				,	it_context = contexts
				}
											 
			= (ins_type, {heaps & hp_type_heaps = {th & th_vars = th_vars}, hp_var_heap = hp_var_heap})
				//---> ("instance type for shorthand instance", gc_name, gc_type, ins_type)
		where
			fill_type_args (TA type_symb_ident=:{type_arity} type_args) new_type_args
				#! type_arity = type_arity + length new_type_args 
				#! type_args = type_args ++ new_type_args
				= TA {type_symb_ident & type_arity = type_arity} type_args 
			fill_type_args TArrow [arg_type, res_type]
				= arg_type --> res_type
			fill_type_args (TArrow1 arg_type) [res_type]
				= arg_type --> res_type	 
			fill_type_args type args
				= abort ("fill_type_args\n"---> ("fill_type_args", type, args)) 

			build_context {gci_class, gci_module, gci_kind} tv hp_var_heap
				# (var_info_ptr, hp_var_heap) = newPtr VI_Empty hp_var_heap			
				# type_context =		
					{	tc_class = 
							{ glob_module=gci_module // the same as icl module
							, glob_object =
								{ ds_ident = genericIdentToClassIdent gc_name gci_kind
								, ds_index = gci_class
								, ds_arity = 1
								}
							}
					,	tc_types = [TV tv]
					,	tc_var	 = var_info_ptr
					}
				= (type_context, hp_var_heap)	

	get_generic_info {gi_module, gi_index} modules heaps=:{hp_generic_heap}
		#! ({gen_info_ptr}, modules) 
			= modules ! [gi_module] . com_generic_defs . [gi_index]
		#! (gen_info, hp_generic_heap) = readPtr gen_info_ptr hp_generic_heap	
		= (gen_info, modules, {heaps & hp_generic_heap = hp_generic_heap})

	get_class_for_kind generic_gi kind (modules, heaps)
		#! ({gen_classes}, modules, heaps) = get_generic_info generic_gi modules heaps
		# (Yes class_info) = lookupGenericClassInfo kind gen_classes
		= (class_info, (modules, heaps))	


	determine_type_of_member_instance :: !MemberDef !InstanceType !*Heaps !*ErrorAdmin
		-> (!SymbolType, !*Heaps, !*ErrorAdmin)
	determine_type_of_member_instance {me_type, me_class_vars} ins_type heaps=:{hp_type_heaps, hp_var_heap} error
		#! (symbol_type, _, hp_type_heaps, _, error) 
			= determineTypeOfMemberInstance me_type me_class_vars ins_type SP_None hp_type_heaps No error
		#! (st_context, hp_var_heap) = initializeContextVariables symbol_type.st_context hp_var_heap
		#! hp_type_heaps = clearSymbolType me_type hp_type_heaps
		#! symbol_type = {symbol_type & st_context = st_context}
		#! heaps = {heaps & hp_type_heaps = hp_type_heaps, hp_var_heap = hp_var_heap}
		= (symbol_type, heaps, error)
			//---> ("determine_type_of_member_instance", ins_type, symbol_type) 

	update_dcl_function :: !Index !GenericCaseDef !SymbolType !*{#FunType} !*Heaps
		-> (!*{#FunType}, !*Heaps)
	update_dcl_function fun_index {gc_name, gc_type_cons} symbol_type dcl_functions heaps 
		| fun_index < size dcl_functions
			#! (symbol_type, heaps) = fresh_symbol_type symbol_type heaps			
			#! (fun, dcl_functions) = dcl_functions ! [fun_index]
			#! fun = 
				{ fun 
				& ft_symb = genericIdentToFunIdent gc_name gc_type_cons
				, ft_type = symbol_type
				}
			#! dcl_functions = { dcl_functions & [fun_index] = fun}
			= (dcl_functions, heaps)
				//---> ("update dcl function", fun.ft_symb, fun_index, symbol_type)  
			= (dcl_functions, heaps)
				//---> ("update dcl function: not in the dcl module", fun_index)  

	update_icl_function_if_needed module_index fun_index gencase fun_type fun_info fun_defs td_infos modules heaps error
		| module_index == main_module_index  // current module
			#! (fi, gi, fs, gs) = fun_info
			#! (gi, gs, fun_defs, td_infos, modules, heaps, error) 
				= update_icl_function fun_index gencase fun_type gi gs fun_defs td_infos modules heaps error
			= ((fi, gi, fs, gs), fun_defs, td_infos, modules, heaps, error)
			= (fun_info, fun_defs, td_infos, modules, heaps, error)
			
	update_icl_function :: 
			!Index !GenericCaseDef !SymbolType 
			!Index ![Group] !*{#FunDef} !*TypeDefInfos !*{#CommonDefs} !*Heaps !*ErrorAdmin 
		-> (!Index, ![Group], !*{#FunDef}, !*TypeDefInfos, !*{#CommonDefs}, !*Heaps, !*ErrorAdmin)
	update_icl_function fun_index gencase=:{gc_name, gc_type_cons, gc_pos} st group_index groups fun_defs td_infos modules heaps error
		#! (st, heaps) = fresh_symbol_type st heaps
		#! (fun=:{fun_body, fun_arity}, fun_defs) = fun_defs ! [fun_index] 		
		#! fun_ident = genericIdentToFunIdent gc_name gc_type_cons
		= case fun_body of 
			TransformedBody tb	// user defined case			
				| fun_arity <> st.st_arity						
					# error = reportError gc_name gc_pos 
						("incorrect arity: " +++ toString st.st_arity +++ " expected") error
					-> (group_index, groups, fun_defs, td_infos, modules, heaps, error)	
				#! fun = 
					{ fun 
					& fun_symb = fun_ident 
					, fun_type = Yes st
					, fun_body = fun_body
					}
				#! fun_defs = { fun_defs & [fun_index] = fun }		
				-> (group_index, groups, fun_defs, td_infos, modules, heaps, error)	
					//---> ("update_icl_function, TransformedBody", fun.fun_symb, fun_index, st)
						
			GeneratedBody		// derived case
				#! (TransformedBody {tb_args, tb_rhs}, td_infos, modules, heaps, error)  
						= buildGenericCaseBody main_module_index gencase st predefs td_infos modules heaps error
					//---> ("call buildGenericCaseBody\n")
				#! fun = makeFunction fun_ident fun_index group_index tb_args tb_rhs (Yes st) main_module_index gc_pos
				#! fun_defs = { fun_defs & [fun_index] = fun }
				
				# group = {group_members=[fun_index]}
						
				-> (inc group_index, [group:groups], fun_defs, td_infos, modules, heaps, error)
					//---> ("update_icl_function, GeneratedBody", fun.fun_symb, fun_index, st)
			_ -> abort "update_icl_function: generic case body\n"
	
	// build wrapping instance for the generic case function
	build_instance_and_member :: !Index !Index !GenericCaseDef !SymbolType !InstanceType !FunsAndGroups (!Index, ![ClassInstance]) !*Heaps
		-> (!FunsAndGroups, (!Index, ![ClassInstance]), !*Heaps)
	build_instance_and_member module_index class_index gencase symbol_type ins_type fun_info ins_info heaps
		#! (memfun_ds, fun_info, heaps) 
			= build_instance_member module_index gencase symbol_type fun_info heaps
/*
		#! ins_type = 
			{	it_vars	= []
			,	it_types = [gencase.gc_type]
			,	it_attr_vars = []
			,	it_context = []
			}
*/			
		#! ins_info = build_class_instance class_index gencase memfun_ds ins_type ins_info
		= (fun_info, ins_info, heaps)
	
	// Creates a function that just calls the generic case function
	// It is needed because the instance member must be in the same
	// module as the instance itself
	build_instance_member module_index gencase st fun_info heaps
	
		# {gc_name, gc_pos, gc_type_cons, gc_kind, gc_body=GCB_FunIndex fun_index} = gencase
		#! arg_var_names = ["x" +++ toString i \\ i <- [1..st.st_arity]]
		#! (arg_var_exprs, arg_vars, heaps) = buildVarExprs arg_var_names heaps
	
		#! (expr_info_ptr, hp_expression_heap) = newPtr EI_Empty heaps.hp_expression_heap
		#! heaps = {heaps & hp_expression_heap = hp_expression_heap}
		#! fun_name = genericIdentToFunIdent gc_name gc_type_cons
		#! expr = App 
			{ app_symb = 
				{ symb_name=fun_name
				, symb_kind=SK_Function {glob_module=module_index, glob_object=fun_index}
				}
			, app_args = arg_var_exprs
			, app_info_ptr = expr_info_ptr
			}
	
		#! (st, heaps) = fresh_symbol_type st heaps
	
		#! memfun_name = genericIdentToMemberIdent gc_name gc_kind
		#! (fun_ds, fun_info) 
			= buildFunAndGroup memfun_name arg_vars expr (Yes st) main_module_index gc_pos fun_info
		= (fun_ds, fun_info, heaps)
	
	build_shorthand_instance_member module_index gencase=:{gc_generic, gc_name, gc_kind, gc_pos} st class_infos fun_info heaps
		#! arg_var_names = ["x" +++ toString i \\ i <- [1..st.st_arity]]
		#! (arg_var_exprs, arg_vars, heaps) = buildVarExprs arg_var_names heaps
	
		#! (expr_info_ptr, hp_expression_heap) = newPtr EI_Empty heaps.hp_expression_heap
		#! heaps = {heaps & hp_expression_heap = hp_expression_heap}
		#! fun_name = genericIdentToMemberIdent gc_name KindConst

		# (gen_exprs, heaps) = mapSt (build_generic_app gc_generic gc_name) class_infos heaps

		# (body_expr, heaps) 
			= buildGenericApp gc_generic.gi_module gc_generic.gi_index 
				gc_name gc_kind (gen_exprs ++ arg_var_exprs) heaps

		#! (st, heaps) = fresh_symbol_type st heaps
	
		#! (fun_ds, fun_info) 
			= buildFunAndGroup fun_name arg_vars body_expr (Yes st) main_module_index gc_pos fun_info

		= (fun_ds, fun_info, heaps)		
			//---> ("shorthand instance body", body_expr)
	where
		build_generic_app {gi_module, gi_index} gc_name {gci_kind} heaps
			= buildGenericApp gi_module gi_index gc_name gci_kind [] heaps	
	
	build_class_instance class_index gencase member_fun_ds ins_type (ins_index, instances) 
		
		# {gc_pos, gc_name, gc_kind} = gencase
		
		#! class_name = genericIdentToClassIdent gc_name gc_kind		
		#! class_ds = {ds_index = class_index, ds_arity=1, ds_ident=class_name}
		#! ins = 
		 	{	ins_class 	= {glob_module=main_module_index, glob_object=class_ds}
			,	ins_ident 	= class_name
			,	ins_type 	= ins_type
			,	ins_members	= {member_fun_ds}
			,	ins_specials = SP_None
			,	ins_pos		= gc_pos
			,	ins_generated = True 
			}
		
		= (inc ins_index, [ins:instances])
	
	fresh_symbol_type :: !SymbolType !*Heaps -> (!SymbolType, !*Heaps)	
	fresh_symbol_type st heaps=:{hp_type_heaps}
		# (fresh_st, hp_type_heaps) = freshSymbolType st hp_type_heaps
		= (fresh_st, {heaps & hp_type_heaps = hp_type_heaps})	
			//---> ("fresh_symbol_type")
		
buildGenericCaseBody :: 
		!Index
		!GenericCaseDef
		!SymbolType
		!PredefinedSymbols
		!*TypeDefInfos
		!*{#CommonDefs} 
		!*Heaps 
		!*ErrorAdmin 
	-> 	( !FunctionBody
		, !*TypeDefInfos
		, !*{#CommonDefs}
		, !*Heaps
		, !*ErrorAdmin
		)
buildGenericCaseBody main_module_index {gc_name,gc_pos, gc_generic, gc_type_cons=TypeConsSymb {type_index}} st predefs td_infos modules heaps error

	// get all the data we need
	#! (gen_def=:{gen_vars, gen_type, gen_bimap}, modules) 	
		= modules ! [gc_generic.gi_module].com_generic_defs.[gc_generic.gi_index] 
	#! (td_info=:{tdi_gen_rep}, td_infos)
		= td_infos ! [type_index.glob_module, type_index.glob_object]
	# ({gtr_iso, gtr_type}) = case tdi_gen_rep of
		Yes x -> x
		No -> abort "no generic representation\n"

	#! (type_def=:{td_args}, modules) 
		= modules ! [type_index.glob_module].com_type_defs.[type_index.glob_object]
	
	#! original_arity 	= gen_type.st_arity 			// arity of generic type
	#! generated_arity 	= st.st_arity - original_arity	// number of added arguments (arity of the kind)	

	// generate variable names and exprs
	#! generated_arg_names = [ "f" +++ toString n \\ n <- [1 .. generated_arity]]
	#! (generated_arg_exprs, generated_arg_vars, heaps) = buildVarExprs generated_arg_names heaps	
	#! original_arg_names = [ "x" +++ toString n \\ n <- [1 .. original_arity]]  
	#! (original_arg_exprs, original_arg_vars, heaps) = buildVarExprs original_arg_names heaps	
	#! arg_vars = generated_arg_vars ++ original_arg_vars

	// create adaptor
	#! (iso_exprs, heaps) 
		= unfoldnSt (buildFunApp main_module_index gtr_iso []) (length gen_vars) heaps	
	#! (bimap_id_exprs, heaps) 
		= unfoldnSt (buildPredefFunApp PD_bimapId [] predefs) (length (gen_type.st_vars -- gen_vars)) heaps 

	//#! (bimap_expr, heaps) 
	//	= buildFunApp main_module_index gen_bimap iso_exprs heaps
	#! spec_env = 
		[(tv,expr)\\tv <- gen_vars & expr <- iso_exprs]	
		++
		[(tv,expr)\\tv <- gen_type.st_vars -- gen_vars & expr <- bimap_id_exprs]
	#! curried_gen_type = curry_symbol_type gen_type
	#! {pds_module = bimap_module, pds_def=bimap_index} = predefs.[PD_GenericBimap]
	
	#! (bimap_expr, (td_infos, heaps, error)) 
		= buildSpecializedExpr1 
			bimap_module bimap_index 
			curried_gen_type spec_env
			gc_name gc_pos 
			(td_infos, heaps, error)	
					
	#! adaptor_expr = buildRecordSelectionExpr bimap_expr PD_map_from predefs	

	// create expression for the generic representation
	#! spec_env = [(atv_variable, expr) \\ {atv_variable} <- td_args & expr <- generated_arg_exprs] 
	#! (specialized_expr, (td_infos, heaps, error)) 
		= buildSpecializedExpr1 
			gc_generic.gi_module gc_generic.gi_index 
			gtr_type spec_env
			gc_name gc_pos 
			(td_infos, heaps, error)

	// create the body expr
	#! body_expr = if (isEmpty original_arg_exprs)
		(adaptor_expr @ [specialized_expr]) 
		((adaptor_expr @ [specialized_expr]) @ original_arg_exprs)
  
	= (TransformedBody {tb_args=arg_vars, tb_rhs=body_expr}, td_infos, modules, heaps, error)	
		//---> (" buildGenericCaseBody", body_expr)
where
	curry_symbol_type {st_args, st_result}
		= foldr (\x y -> makeAType (x --> y) TA_Multi) st_result st_args 	

//buildGenericCaseBody main_module_index {gc_name,gc_pos, gc_generic, gc_type_cons=TypeConsSymb {type_index}} st predefs td_infos modules heaps error
buildGenericCaseBody main_module_index {gc_name,gc_pos} st predefs td_infos modules heaps error
	# error = reportError gc_name gc_pos "cannot specialize to this type" error
	= (TransformedBody {tb_args=[], tb_rhs=EE}, td_infos, modules, heaps, error)
			 							 
//****************************************************************************************
//  specialization
//****************************************************************************************

buildSpecializedExpr1 ::
		!Index					// generic module
		!Index					// generic index
		!AType					// type to specialize to
		![(TypeVar, Expression)] // specialization environment
		!Ident					// generic/generic case
		!Position				// of generic case
		(!*TypeDefInfos, !*Heaps, !*ErrorAdmin)
	->  ( !Expression
		, !(!*TypeDefInfos, !*Heaps, !*ErrorAdmin)
		)
buildSpecializedExpr1 gen_module gen_index atype spec_env ident pos (td_infos, heaps, error)

	#! heaps = set_tvs spec_env heaps
	#! (expr, (td_infos, heaps, error)) 
		= buildSpecializedExpr gen_module gen_index atype ident pos (td_infos, heaps, error)

	#! heaps = clear_tvs spec_env heaps
	= (expr, (td_infos, heaps, error))
where
	set_tvs spec_env heaps=:{hp_type_heaps=hp_type_heaps=:{th_vars}}
		#! th_vars = foldSt write_tv spec_env th_vars
			with write_tv ({tv_info_ptr}, expr) th_vars
					= writePtr tv_info_ptr (TVI_Expr expr) th_vars		
		= {heaps & hp_type_heaps = {hp_type_heaps & th_vars = th_vars }}

	clear_tvs spec_env heaps=:{hp_type_heaps=hp_type_heaps=:{th_vars}}
		#! th_vars = foldSt write_tv spec_env th_vars
			with write_tv ({tv_info_ptr}, _) th_vars
					= writePtr tv_info_ptr TVI_Empty th_vars		
		= {heaps & hp_type_heaps = {hp_type_heaps & th_vars = th_vars }}

// generates an expression that corresponds to a type
buildSpecializedExpr ::
		!Index					// generic module index
		!Index 					// generic index
		!AType					// type to specialize to
								// tv_info_ptr of type variables must contain expressions
								// corresponding to the type variables 
		!Ident					// for error reporting
		!Position				// for error reporting
		!(!*TypeDefInfos, !*Heaps, !*ErrorAdmin)
	->  ( !Expression			// generated expression
		, !(!*TypeDefInfos, !*Heaps, !*ErrorAdmin)
		)
buildSpecializedExpr gen_module gen_index type gen_name pos gs 
	= spec_atype type gs
where
	spec_atype {at_type} gs = spec_type at_type gs 

	spec_atypes [] gs = ([], gs)
	spec_atypes [type:types]  gs
		# (expr, gs) = spec_atype type gs 
		# (exprs, gs) = spec_atypes types gs 
		= ([expr:exprs], gs)

	spec_type :: !Type !(!*TypeDefInfos, !*Heaps, !*ErrorAdmin)
		-> !(Expression, !(!*TypeDefInfos, !*Heaps, !*ErrorAdmin))
	spec_type (TA {type_index, type_name} args) st
		# (arg_exprs, st) = spec_atypes args st
		# (kind, st) = get_kind type_index st 
		= build_generic_app kind arg_exprs st  
	spec_type (TAS {type_index, type_name} args _) st
		# (arg_exprs, st) = spec_atypes args st
		# (kind, st) = get_kind type_index st 
		= build_generic_app kind arg_exprs st  
	spec_type (arg_type --> res_type) st
		#! (arg_expr, st) = spec_atype arg_type st
		#! (res_expr, st) = spec_atype res_type st
		= build_generic_app (KindArrow [KindConst, KindConst]) [arg_expr, res_expr] st
	spec_type ((CV type_var) :@: args) gs 
		#! (expr, gs) = spec_type_var type_var gs
		#! (exprs, gs) = spec_atypes args gs
		= (expr @ exprs, gs)	
	spec_type (TB basic_type) st
		= build_generic_app KindConst [] st
	spec_type (TFA atvs type) (td_infos, heaps, error) 
		#! error = reportError gen_name pos "cannot specialize to forall types" error