Documentation

parent 6ae43189
system module StdBool
/**
* Class instances and basic functions for the Bool type.
*/
// ****************************************************************************************
// Concurrent Clean Standard Library Module Version 3.0
// Copyright 2019 University of Nijmegen
......@@ -16,8 +20,30 @@ instance fromBool {#Char} :: !Bool -> {#Char} :== code { .d 0 1 b ; jsr Bto
// Additional Logical Operators:
/**
* Logical negation.
*
* @param The boolean to negate
* @result True if the parameter was False; False if True
*/
not :: !Bool -> Bool :== code { notB }
// Not arg1
(||) infixr 2 :: !Bool Bool -> Bool // Conditional or of arg1 and arg2
(&&) infixr 3 :: !Bool Bool -> Bool // Conditional and of arg1 and arg2
/**
* Logical disjunction. The second parameter is not strict and will not be
* evaluated if the first parameter is True.
*
* @param First boolean
* @param Second boolean
* @result True iff at least one of the parameters is True
*/
(||) infixr 2 :: !Bool Bool -> Bool
/**
* Logical conjunction. The second parameter is not strict and will not be
* evaluated if the first parameter is False.
*
* @param First boolean
* @param Second boolean
* @result True iff both parameters are True
*/
(&&) infixr 3 :: !Bool Bool -> Bool
system module StdChar
/**
* Class instances and basic functions for the Char type.
*/
// ****************************************************************************************
// Concurrent Clean Standard Library Module Version 3.0
// Copyright 2019 University of Nijmegen
......@@ -24,20 +28,116 @@ instance fromChar {#Char} :: !Char -> {#Char} :== code { CtoAC }
// Additional conversions:
digitToInt :: !Char -> Int // Convert Digit into Int
toUpper :: !Char -> Char // Convert Char into an uppercase Char
toLower :: !Char -> Char // Convert Char into a lowercase Char
/**
* Converts a character from ['0'..'9'] to an integer.
*
* @param The character
* @result 0-9 if the character was from ['0'..'9'], otherwise another Int
*/
digitToInt :: !Char -> Int
/**
* Converts a character to uppercase.
*
* @param The character
* @result The same character, with bit 5 cleared
*/
toUpper :: !Char -> Char
/**
* Converts a character to lowercase.
*
* @param The character
* @result The same character, with bit 5 set
*/
toLower :: !Char -> Char
// Tests on Characters:
isUpper :: !Char -> Bool // True if arg1 is an uppercase character
isLower :: !Char -> Bool // True if arg1 is a lowercase character
isAlpha :: !Char -> Bool // True if arg1 is a letter
isAlphanum :: !Char -> Bool // True if arg1 is an alphanumerical character
isDigit :: !Char -> Bool // True if arg1 is a digit
isOctDigit :: !Char -> Bool // True if arg1 is a digit
isHexDigit :: !Char -> Bool // True if arg1 is a digit
isSpace :: !Char -> Bool // True if arg1 is a space, tab etc
isControl :: !Char -> Bool // True if arg1 is a control character
isPrint :: !Char -> Bool // True if arg1 is a printable character
isAscii :: !Char -> Bool // True if arg1 is a 7 bit ASCII character
/**
* Check for uppercase
*
* @param The character
* @result True iff the parameter is from ['A'..'Z']
*/
isUpper :: !Char -> Bool
/**
* Check for lowercase
*
* @param The character
* @result True iff the parameter is from ['a'..'z']
*/
isLower :: !Char -> Bool
/**
* Check for an alphabetic character
*
* @param The character
* @result True iff the parameter is from ['a'..'z'] ++ ['A'..'Z']
*/
isAlpha :: !Char -> Bool
/**
* Check for an alphabetic or numerical character
*
* @param The character
* @result True iff the parameter is from ['a'..'z'] ++ ['A'..'Z'] ++ ['0'..'9']
*/
isAlphanum :: !Char -> Bool
/**
* Check for a numerical character
*
* @param The character
* @result True iff the parameter is from ['0'..'9']
*/
isDigit :: !Char -> Bool
/**
* Check for an octal digit
*
* @param The character
* @result True iff the parameter is from ['0'..'7']
*/
isOctDigit :: !Char -> Bool
/**
* Check for a hexadecimal digit
*
* @param The character
* @result True iff the parameter is from ['0'..'9'] ++ ['a'..'f'] ++ ['A'..'F']
*/
isHexDigit :: !Char -> Bool
/**
* Check for whitespace
*
* @param The character
* @result True iff the parameter is one of ' ', '\t', '\n', '\r', '\f', '\v'
*/
isSpace :: !Char -> Bool
/**
* Check for an ASCII control character
*
* @param The character
* @result True iff the parameter is from ['\x00'..'\x1f'] ++ ['\x7f']
*/
isControl :: !Char -> Bool
/**
* Check for a printable ASCII character
*
* @param The character
* @result True iff the parameter is from [' '..'~']
*/
isPrint :: !Char -> Bool
/**
* Check for a 7-bit ASCII character
*
* @param The character
* @result True iff the integer value of the parameter is less than 128
*/
isAscii :: !Char -> Bool
definition module StdCharList
/**
* Basic functions for manipulating lists of characters.
*/
// ****************************************************************************************
// Concurrent Clean Standard Library Module Version 2.0
// Copyright 1998 University of Nijmegen
// ****************************************************************************************
cjustify :: !.Int ![.Char] -> .[Char] // Center [Char] in field with width arg1
ljustify :: !.Int ![.Char] -> .[Char] // Left justify [Char] in field with width arg1
rjustify :: !.Int ![.Char] -> [Char] // Right justify [Char] in field with width arg1
/**
* Center-align a text with spaces, s.t. the right margin is 0 or 1 spaces
* longer than the left margin.
*
* @param The minimum length of the result
* @param The text to center
* @result A list of max(|param 2|, param 1), with param 2 surrounded by spaces
*/
cjustify :: !.Int ![.Char] -> .[Char]
/**
* Left-align a text with spaces
*
* @param The minimum length of the result
* @param The text to align
* @result A list of max(|param 2|, param 1), with spaces appended to param 2
*/
ljustify :: !.Int ![.Char] -> .[Char]
/**
* Right-align a text with spaces
*
* @param The minimum length of the result
* @param The text to align
* @result A list of max(|param 2|, param 1), with spaces prepended to param 2
*/
rjustify :: !.Int ![.Char] -> [Char]
/**
* Concatenate a list of texts, interspersing it with newlines
*
* @param The texts
* @result All texts concatenated, with newlines in between
*/
flatlines :: ![[u:Char]] -> [u:Char]
flatlines :: ![[u:Char]] -> [u:Char] // Concatenate by adding newlines
mklines :: ![Char] -> [[Char]] // Split in lines removing newlines
/**
* Split a text on newlines
*
* @param The text
* @result A list of texts without newlines
*/
mklines :: ![Char] -> [[Char]]
spaces :: !.Int -> .[Char] // Make [Char] containing n space characters
/**
* A list of a number of ' ' characters
*
* @param The number of characters
* @result A list of param 1 spaces
*/
spaces :: !.Int -> .[Char]
definition module StdClass
/**
* Meta-classes with derived functions.
*/
// ****************************************************************************************
// Concurrent Clean Standard Library Module Version 2.0
// Copyright 1998 University of Nijmegen
......@@ -12,40 +16,73 @@ from StdBool import not
// For the time-being, macro definitions are used for this purpose
// This may cause misleading error messages in case of type errors
//* Meta-class describing interval types with an absolute zero.
class PlusMin a | + , - , zero a
//* Meta-class describing ratio types.
class MultDiv a | * , / , one a
//* Meta-class describing arithmetical types.
class Arith a | PlusMin , MultDiv , abs , sign , ~ a
//* Meta-class describing types that can be incremented and decremented.
class IncDec a | + , - , one , zero a
where
//* Increment a value by one.
inc :: !a -> a | + , one a
inc x :== x + one
//* Decrement a value by one.
dec :: !a -> a | - , one a
dec x :== x - one
//* Meta-class describing types that can be enumerated.
class Enum a | < , IncDec a
/**
* Equality.
* @var The type for which values can be equated
*/
class Eq a | == a
where
/**
* Inequality.
* @result True iff the parameters are not equal
*/
(<>) infix 4 :: !a !a -> Bool | Eq a
(<>) x y :== not (x == y)
/**
* Ordering.
* @var The type that can be ordered.
*/
class Ord a | < a
where
/**
* Greater than.
* @result True iff the first value is strictly greater than the second value.
*/
(>) infix 4 :: !a !a -> Bool | Ord a
(>) x y :== y < x
/**
* Smaller than or equal to.
* @result True iff the first value is smaller than or equal to the second value.
*/
(<=) infix 4 :: !a !a -> Bool | Ord a
(<=) x y :== not (y<x)
/**
* Greater than or equal to.
* @result True iff the first value is greater than or equal to the second value.
*/
(>=) infix 4 :: !a !a -> Bool | Ord a
(>=) x y :== not (x<y)
//* The minimum of two values.
min::!a !a -> a | Ord a
min x y :== case (x<y) of True = x; _ = y
//* The maximum of two values.
max::!a !a -> a | Ord a
max x y :== case (x<y) of True = y; _ = x
definition module StdDebug
/**
* Functions that write intermediate results to stderr for debugging purposes.
*/
// ********************************************************
// Concurrent Clean Standard Library Module Version 2.0
// Copyright 1998 University of Nijmegen
......@@ -12,16 +16,48 @@ from StdString import instance toString {#Char},instance toString Int
// The following functions should only be used for debugging,
// because these functions have side effects
trace :: !msg .a -> .a | toString msg // write toString msg to stderr
// before evaluating a
special msg={#Char}; msg=Int
trace_n :: !msg .a -> .a | toString msg // write toString msg and newline to stderr
// before evaluating a
special msg={#Char}; msg=Int
trace_t :: !msg -> Bool | toString msg // write toString msg to stderr
// result is True
special msg={#Char}; msg=Int
trace_tn :: !msg -> Bool | toString msg // write toString msg and newline to stderr
// result is True
special msg={#Char}; msg=Int
/**
* Write a message to stderr before returning a value.
*
* @param The message to write to stderr
* @param The value to return
* @result Param 2
*/
trace :: !msg .a -> .a | toString msg special msg={#Char}; msg=Int
/**
* Write a message and a newline to stderr before returning a value.
*
* @param The message to write to stderr
* @param The value to return
* @result Param 2
*/
trace_n :: !msg .a -> .a | toString msg special msg={#Char}; msg=Int
/**
* Write a message to stderr and return True. This is useful in guards, for
* example:
*
* ```
* square x
* | trace_t x = x * x
* ```
*
* @param The message to write to stderr
* @result True
*/
trace_t :: !msg -> Bool | toString msg special msg={#Char}; msg=Int
/**
* Write a message and a newline to stderr and return True. This is useful in
* guards, for example:
*
* ```
* square x
* | trace_tn x = x * x
* ```
*
* @param The message to write to stderr
* @result True
*/
trace_tn :: !msg -> Bool | toString msg special msg={#Char}; msg=Int
definition module StdEnum
/**
* This module must be imported if dotdot expressions are used.
* Then, the following constructs can be used:
*
* - `[from .. ]` -> `{{_from}} from`
* - `[from .. to]` -> `{{_from_to}} from to`
* - `[from, then .. ]` -> `{{_from_then}} from then`
* - `[from, then .. to]` -> `{{_from_then_to}} from then to`
*/
// ****************************************************************************************
// Concurrent Clean Standard Library Module Version 2.0
// Copyright 1998 University of Nijmegen
// ****************************************************************************************
/*
This module must be imported if dotdot expressions are used
[from .. ] -> _from from
[from .. to] -> _from_to from to
[from, then .. ] -> _from_then from then
[from, then .. to] -> _from_then_to from then to
*/
import _SystemEnum
definition module StdEnv
/**
* Clean's official Standard Environment library.
*/
// ****************************************************************************************
// Concurrent Clean Standard Library Module Version 3.0
// Copyright 2018 Radboud University
......
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definition module StdFunc
/**
* A number of general functions and functions dealing with functions.
*/
// ****************************************************************************************
// Concurrent Clean Standard Library Module Version 3.0
// Copyright 2018 Radboud University
......@@ -9,15 +13,38 @@ import StdFunctions
// Some handy functions for transforming unique states:
seq :: ![.(.s -> .s)] .s -> .s // fn-1 (..(f1 (f0 x))..)
seqList :: ![St .s .a] .s -> ([.a],.s) // fn-1 (..(f1 (f0 x))..)
/**
* Iterate a list of state functions.
*
* @param The functions
* @param The initial state
* @result The final state
*/
seq :: ![.(.s -> .s)] .s -> .s
/**
* Iterate a list of state functions with result
*
* @param The functions
* @param The initial state
* @result A list of results from the state function and the final state
*/
seqList :: ![St .s .a] .s -> ([.a],.s)
//* A function that updates a state and produces a result.
:: St s a :== s -> *(a,s)
// monadic style:
(`bind`) infix 0 // :: w:(St .s .a) v:(.a -> .(St .s .b)) -> u:(St .s .b), [u <= v, u <= w]
/**
* Monadic bind for the {{`St`}} type.
* @type w:(St .s .a) v:(.a -> .(St .s .b)) -> u:(St .s .b), [u <= v, u <= w]
*/
(`bind`) infix 0
(`bind`) f g :== \st0 -> let (r,st1) = f st0 in g r st1
// return :: u:a -> u:(St .s u:a)
/**
* Monadic return for the {{`St`}} type.
* @type u:a -> u:(St .s u:a)
*/
return r :== \s -> (r,s)
......@@ -5,16 +5,29 @@ definition module StdFunctions
// Copyright 2018 Radboud University
// ****************************************************************************************
id :: !.a -> .a // identity function
const :: !.a .b -> .a // constant function
//* The identity function.
id :: !.a -> .a
//* Always returns the first argument.
const :: !.a .b -> .a
//flip :: !.(.a -> .(.b -> .c)) .b .a -> .c // Flip arguments
/**
* Flips the arguments of a function. This is useful in function compositions.
* @type !.(.a -> .(.b -> .c)) .b .a -> .c
*/
flip f a b :== f b a
(o) infixr 9 // :: u:(.a -> .b) u:(.c -> .a) -> u:(.c -> .b) // Function composition
/**
* Function composition: apply `f` after `g`.
* @type u:(.a -> .b) u:(.c -> .a) -> u:(.c -> .b)
*/
(o) infixr 9
(o) f g :== \ x -> f (g x)
twice :: !(.a -> .a) .a -> .a // f (f x)
while :: !(a -> .Bool) (a -> a) a -> a // while (p x) f (f x)
until :: !(a -> .Bool) (a -> a) a -> a // f (f x) until (p x)
iter :: !Int (.a -> .a) .a -> .a // f (f..(f x)..)
//* Apply the function argument twice.
twice :: !(.a -> .a) .a -> .a
//* Apply the second argument as long as the first argument holds.
while :: !(a -> .Bool) (a -> a) a -> a
//* Apply the second argument until the first argument holds.
until :: !(a -> .Bool) (a -> a) a -> a
//* Apply a function a number of times.
iter :: !Int (.a -> .a) .a -> .a
system module StdInt
/**
* Class instances and basic functions for the Int type.
*/
// ****************************************************************************************
// Concurrent Clean Standard Library Module Version 2.0
// Copyright 1998 University of Nijmegen
......@@ -49,17 +53,65 @@ instance lcm Int // Least common multiple
// Operators on Bits:
/**
* Bitwise disjunction.
*
* @param The first integer
* @param The second integer
* @result An integer with exactly those bits set that at least one of the parameters has set
*/
(bitor) infixl 6 :: !Int !Int -> Int :== code { or% }
// Bitwise Or of arg1 and arg2
/**
* Bitwise conjunction.
*
* @param The first integer
* @param The second integer
* @result An integer with exactly those bits set that both of the parameters have set
*/
(bitand) infixl 6 :: !Int !Int -> Int :== code { and% }
// Bitwise And of arg1 and arg2
/**
* Bitwise exclusive disjunction.
*
* @param The first integer
* @param The second integer
* @result An integer with exactly those bits set that exactly one of the parameters has set
*/
(bitxor) infixl 6 :: !Int !Int -> Int :== code { xor% }
// Exclusive-Or arg1 with mask arg2
/**
* Shift an integer to the left.
*
* @param The integer to shift
* @param The number of places to shift
* @result The result of the bitshift
*/
(<<) infix 7 :: !Int !Int -> Int :== code { shiftl% }
// Shift arg1 to the left arg2 bit places
/**
* Shift an integer to the right.
*
* @param The integer to shift
* @param The number of places to shift
* @result The result of the bitshift
*/
(>>) infix 7 :: !Int !Int -> Int :== code { shiftr% }
// Shift arg1 to the right arg2 bit places
/**
* Bitwise logical negation.
*
* @param An integer
* @param The one's complement of the parameter
*/
bitnot :: !Int -> Int :== code { not% }
// One's complement of arg1
IF_INT_64_OR_32 int64 int32 :== int32;
/**
* Compile-time macro to check for the integer length of the system.
*
* @type .a .a -> .a
* @param The value if the platform is 64-bit
* @param The value if the platform is 32-bit
* @result Either of the parameters, depending on the platform
*/
IF_INT_64_OR_32 int64 int32 :== int64;
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......@@ -6,31 +6,43 @@ definition module StdMaybe
from StdOverloaded import class ==(..);
/**
* The Maybe type represents an optional value by providing a constructor
* for no value (`Nothing`) and a constructor for just a value (`Just`).
*/
:: Maybe x
= Just x
| Nothing
isJust :: !(Maybe .x) -> Bool // case @1 of (Just _) -> True; _ -> False
isNothing :: !(Maybe .x) -> Bool // not o isJust
fromJust :: !(Maybe .x) -> .x // \(Just x) -> x
//* `case @1 of ({{Just}} _) -> True; _ -> False`
isJust :: !(Maybe .x) -> Bool
// for possibly unique elements:
//* `{{not}} {{o}} {{isJust}}`
isNothing :: !(Maybe .x) -> Bool
//* `\({{Just}} x) -> x`
fromJust :: !(Maybe .x) -> .x
//* {{`isJust`}} for a possibly unique value.
isJustU :: !u:(Maybe .x) -> (!Bool, !u:Maybe .x)
//* {{`isNothing`}} for a possibly unique value.
isNothingU :: !u:(Maybe .x) -> (!Bool, !u:Maybe .x)
//* Apply a function on the value boxed in {{`Just`}}, or pass on {{`Nothing`}}.
mapMaybe :: .(.x -> .y) !(Maybe .x) -> Maybe .y
// mapMaybe f (Just x) = Just (f x)
// mapMaybe f Nothing = Nothing
instance == (Maybe x) | == x
// Nothing==Nothing
// Just a ==Just b <= a==b
/**
* @result A list with no or one element.
*/
maybeToList :: !(Maybe .a) -> [.a];
// returns list with no or one element
/**
* @result {{`Just`}} the head of the list or {{`Nothing`}} if it is empty.
*/
listToMaybe :: ![.a] -> .Maybe .a;
// returns Just head of list if possible
//* `catMaybes ms = [m \\ {{Just}} m <- ms]`
catMaybes :: ![Maybe .a] -> .[.a];
// catMaybes ms = [ m \\ Just m <- ms ]
system module StdMisc
/**
* Miscellaneous functions.
*/
// ****************************************************************************************
// Concurrent Clean Standard Library Module Version 3.0
// Copyright 2019 University of Nijmegen
// ****************************************************************************************
/**
* Print a message and abort the program.
*
* @param The message to print
* @result There is no result; the program will terminate
*/