revocation.go 25.5 KB
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package irma

import (
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	"database/sql/driver"
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	"fmt"
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	"sort"
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	"time"

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	"github.com/fxamacker/cbor"
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	"github.com/getsentry/raven-go"
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	"github.com/go-errors/errors"
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	"github.com/hashicorp/go-multierror"
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	"github.com/jinzhu/gorm"
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	"github.com/privacybydesign/gabi"
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	"github.com/privacybydesign/gabi/big"
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	"github.com/privacybydesign/gabi/revocation"
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	"github.com/privacybydesign/gabi/signed"
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	_ "github.com/jinzhu/gorm/dialects/mysql"
	_ "github.com/jinzhu/gorm/dialects/postgres"
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)

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type (
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	// RevocationStorage stores and retrieves revocation-related data from and to a SQL database,
	// and offers a revocation API for all other irmago code, including a Revoke() method that
	// revokes an earlier issued credential.
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	RevocationStorage struct {
		conf     *Configuration
		db       revStorage
		memdb    memRevStorage
		sqlMode  bool
		settings map[CredentialTypeIdentifier]*RevocationSetting

		Keys   RevocationKeys
		client RevocationClient
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	}

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	// RevocationClient offers an HTTP client to the revocation server endpoints.
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	RevocationClient struct {
		Conf *Configuration
	}

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	// RevocationKeys contains helper functions for retrieving revocation private and public keys
	// from an irma.Configuration instance.
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	RevocationKeys struct {
		Conf *Configuration
	}

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	// RevocationSetting contains revocation settings for a given credential type.
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	RevocationSetting struct {
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		Mode                     RevocationMode `json:"mode" mapstructure:"mode"`
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		PostURLs                 []string       `json:"post_urls" mapstructure:"post_urls"`
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		ServerURL                string         `json:"server_url" mapstructure:"server_url"`
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		MaxNonrevocationDuration uint           `json:"max_nonrev_duration" mapstructure:"max_nonrev_duration"` // in seconds, min 30
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		// set to now whenever a new update is received, or when the RA indicates
		// there are no new updates. Thus it specifies up to what time our nonrevocation
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		// guarantees lasts.
		updated time.Time
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	}

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	// RevocationMode specifies for a given credential type what revocation operations are
	// supported, and how the associated data is stored (SQL or memory).
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	RevocationMode string
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)
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// Structs corresponding to SQL table rows, ending in Record
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type (
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	// signedMessage is a signed.Message with DB (un)marshaling methods.
	signedMessage signed.Message
	// RevocationAttribute is a big.Int with DB (un)marshaling methods.
	RevocationAttribute big.Int
	// eventHash is a revocation.Hash with DB (un)marshaling methods.
	eventHash revocation.Hash

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	AccumulatorRecord struct {
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		CredType  CredentialTypeIdentifier `gorm:"primary_key"`
		Data      signedMessage
		PKCounter uint `gorm:"primary_key;auto_increment:false"`
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	}

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	EventRecord struct {
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		Index      uint64                   `gorm:"primary_key;column:eventindex"`
		CredType   CredentialTypeIdentifier `gorm:"primary_key"`
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		PKCounter  uint                     `gorm:"primary_key;auto_increment:false"`
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		E          *RevocationAttribute
		ParentHash eventHash
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	}

	// IssuanceRecord contains information generated during issuance, needed for later revocation.
	IssuanceRecord struct {
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		Key        string                   `gorm:"primary_key;column:revocationkey"`
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		CredType   CredentialTypeIdentifier `gorm:"primary_key"`
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		PKCounter  uint
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		Attr       *RevocationAttribute
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		Issued     int64
		ValidUntil int64
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		RevokedAt  int64 `json:",omitempty"` // 0 if not currently revoked
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	}
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)
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const (
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	// RevocationModeRequestor is the default revocation mode in which only RevocationRecord instances
	// are consumed for issuance or verification. Uses an in-memory store.
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	RevocationModeRequestor RevocationMode = ""
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	// RevocationModeProxy indicates that this server
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	// (1) allows fetching of revocation update messages from its database,
	// (2) relays all revocation updates it receives to the URLs configured in the containing
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	// RevocationSetting struct.
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	// Requires a SQL server to store and retrieve update messages from.
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	RevocationModeProxy RevocationMode = "proxy"

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	// RevocationModeServer indicates that this is a revocation server for a credential type.
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	// IssuanceRecord instances are sent to this server, as well as revocation commands, through
	// revocation sessions or through the RevocationStorage.Revoke() method.
	// Requires a SQL server to store and retrieve all records from and requires the issuer's
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	// private key to be accessible, in order to revoke and to sign new revocation update messages.
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	// In addition this mode exposes the same endpoints as RevocationModeProxy.
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	RevocationModeServer RevocationMode = "server"

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	// RevocationDefaultEventCount specifies how many revocation events are attached to session requests
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	// for the client to update its revocation state.
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	RevocationDefaultEventCount = 5
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	// revocationMaxAccumulatorAge is the default maximum in seconds for the 'accumulator age',
	// which we define to be the amount of time since the last confirmation from the RA that the
	// latest accumulator that we know is still the latest one: clients should prove nonrevocation
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	// against a 'younger' accumulator.
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	revocationMaxAccumulatorAge uint = 5 * 60
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	// If server mode is enabled for a credential type, then once every so many seconds
	// the timestamp in each accumulator is updated to now.
	revocationAccumulatorUpdateInterval uint64 = 10
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)

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// EnableRevocation creates an initial accumulator for a given credential type. This function is the
// only way to create such an initial accumulator and it must be called before anyone can use
// revocation for this credential type. Requires the issuer private key.
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func (rs *RevocationStorage) EnableRevocation(typ CredentialTypeIdentifier, sk *revocation.PrivateKey) error {
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	enabled, err := rs.RevocationEnabled(typ)
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	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
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	if enabled {
		return errors.New("revocation already enabled")
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	}

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	update, err := revocation.NewAccumulator(sk)
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	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
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	if err = rs.addUpdate(rs.db, typ, update, true); err != nil {
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		return err
	}
	return nil
}

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// RevocationEnabled returns whether or not revocation is enabled for the given credential type,
// by checking if any revocation record exists in the database.
func (rs *RevocationStorage) RevocationEnabled(typ CredentialTypeIdentifier) (bool, error) {
	if rs.sqlMode {
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		return rs.db.Exists((*EventRecord)(nil), nil)
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	} else {
		return rs.memdb.HasRecords(typ), nil
	}
}

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// Revocation update message methods

// UpdateFrom returns all records that a client requires to update its revocation state if it is currently
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// at the specified index, that is, all records whose end index is greater than or equal to
// the specified index.
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func (rs *RevocationStorage) UpdateFrom(typ CredentialTypeIdentifier, pkcounter uint, index uint64) (*revocation.Update, error) {
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	// Only requires SQL implementation
	var update *revocation.Update
	if err := rs.db.Transaction(func(tx revStorage) error {
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		acc, _, err := rs.accumulator(tx, typ, pkcounter)
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		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
		var events []*EventRecord
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		if err := tx.Find(&events, "cred_type = ? and pk_counter = ? and eventindex >= ?", typ, pkcounter, index); err != nil {
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			return err
		}
		update = rs.newUpdate(acc, events)
		return nil
	}); err != nil {
		return nil, err
	}
	return update, nil
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}

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func (rs *RevocationStorage) UpdateLatest(typ CredentialTypeIdentifier, count uint64) (map[uint]*revocation.Update, error) {
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	// TODO what should this function and UpdateFrom return when no records are found?
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	if rs.sqlMode {
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		var update map[uint]*revocation.Update
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		if err := rs.db.Transaction(func(tx revStorage) error {
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			var (
				records []*AccumulatorRecord
				events  []*EventRecord
			)
			if err := tx.Last(&records, map[string]interface{}{"cred_type": typ}); err != nil {
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				return err
			}
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			if err := tx.Latest(&events, count, map[string]interface{}{"cred_type": typ}); err != nil {
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				return err
			}
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			update = rs.newUpdates(records, events)
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			return nil
		}); err != nil {
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			return nil, err
		}
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		return update, nil
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	} else {
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		return rs.memdb.Latest(typ, count), nil
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	}
}

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func (*RevocationStorage) newUpdates(records []*AccumulatorRecord, events []*EventRecord) map[uint]*revocation.Update {
	accs := map[uint]*revocation.SignedAccumulator{}
	for _, r := range records {
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		accs[r.PKCounter] = r.SignedAccumulator()
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	}
	updates := make(map[uint]*revocation.Update, len(accs))
	for _, e := range events {
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		i := e.PKCounter
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		if accs[i] == nil {
			continue
		}
		update, present := updates[i]
		if !present {
			update = &revocation.Update{SignedAccumulator: accs[i]}
			updates[i] = update
		}
		update.Events = append(update.Events, e.Event())
	}
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	for _, update := range updates {
		sort.Slice(update.Events, func(i, j int) bool {
			return update.Events[i].Index < update.Events[j].Index
		})
	}
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	return updates
}

func (rs *RevocationStorage) newUpdate(acc *revocation.SignedAccumulator, events []*EventRecord) *revocation.Update {
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	updates := make([]*revocation.Event, len(events))
	for i := range events {
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		updates[i] = events[i].Event()
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	}
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	return &revocation.Update{
		SignedAccumulator: acc,
		Events:            updates,
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	}
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}

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func (rs *RevocationStorage) AddUpdate(typ CredentialTypeIdentifier, record *revocation.Update) error {
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	return rs.addUpdate(rs.db, typ, record, false)
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}
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func (rs *RevocationStorage) addUpdate(tx revStorage, typ CredentialTypeIdentifier, update *revocation.Update, create bool) error {
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	// Unmarshal and verify the record against the appropriate public key
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	pk, err := rs.Keys.PublicKey(typ.IssuerIdentifier(), update.SignedAccumulator.PKCounter)
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	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
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	if _, _, err = update.Verify(pk, 0); err != nil {
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		return err
	}

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	// Save record
	if rs.sqlMode {
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		save := tx.Save
		if create {
			save = tx.Insert
		}
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		if err = save(new(AccumulatorRecord).Convert(typ, update.SignedAccumulator)); err != nil {
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			return err
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		}
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		for _, event := range update.Events {
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			if err = tx.Insert(new(EventRecord).Convert(typ, update.SignedAccumulator.PKCounter, event)); err != nil {
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				return err
			}
		}
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	} else {
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		rs.memdb.Insert(typ, update)
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	}

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	s := rs.getSettings(typ)
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	s.updated = time.Now()
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	// POST record to listeners, if any, asynchroniously
	go rs.client.PostUpdate(typ, s.PostURLs, update)
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	return nil
}
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// Issuance records

func (rs *RevocationStorage) IssuanceRecordExists(typ CredentialTypeIdentifier, key []byte) (bool, error) {
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	return rs.db.Exists(&IssuanceRecord{}, map[string]interface{}{"cred_type": typ, "revocationkey": key})
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}

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func (rs *RevocationStorage) AddIssuanceRecord(r *IssuanceRecord) error {
	return rs.db.Insert(r)
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}

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func (rs *RevocationStorage) IssuanceRecord(typ CredentialTypeIdentifier, key []byte) (*IssuanceRecord, error) {
	var r IssuanceRecord
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	err := rs.db.Last(&r, map[string]interface{}{"cred_type": typ, "revocationkey": key})
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	if err != nil {
		return nil, err
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	}
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	return &r, nil
}
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// Revocation methods

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// Revoke revokes the credential specified by key if found within the current database,
// by updating its revocation time to now, removing its revocation attribute from the current accumulator,
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// and updating the revocation database on disk.
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func (rs *RevocationStorage) Revoke(typ CredentialTypeIdentifier, key string) error {
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	if rs.getSettings(typ).Mode != RevocationModeServer {
		return errors.Errorf("cannot revoke %s", typ)
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	}
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	return rs.db.Transaction(func(tx revStorage) error {
		var err error
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		issrecord := IssuanceRecord{}
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		if err = tx.Last(&issrecord, map[string]interface{}{"cred_type": typ, "revocationkey": key}); err != nil {
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			return err
		}
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		issrecord.RevokedAt = time.Now().UnixNano()
		if err = tx.Save(&issrecord); err != nil {
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			return err
		}
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		sk, err := rs.Keys.PrivateKey(typ.IssuerIdentifier(), issrecord.PKCounter)
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		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
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		return rs.revokeAttr(tx, typ, sk, issrecord.Attr)
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	})
}

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func (rs *RevocationStorage) revokeAttr(tx revStorage, typ CredentialTypeIdentifier, sk *revocation.PrivateKey, e *RevocationAttribute) error {
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	_, cur, err := rs.accumulator(tx, typ, sk.Counter)
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	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
	if cur == nil {
		return errors.Errorf("cannot revoke for type %s, not enabled yet", typ)
	}
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	var parent EventRecord
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	if err = rs.db.Last(&parent, map[string]interface{}{"cred_type": typ, "pk_counter": sk.Counter}); err != nil {
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		return err
	}
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	update, err := cur.Remove(sk, (*big.Int)(e), parent.Event())
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	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
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	if err = rs.addUpdate(tx, typ, update, false); err != nil {
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		return err
	}
	return nil
}

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// Accumulator methods
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func (rs *RevocationStorage) Accumulator(typ CredentialTypeIdentifier, pkcounter uint) (
	*revocation.SignedAccumulator, *revocation.Accumulator, error,
) {
	return rs.accumulator(rs.db, typ, pkcounter)
}

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// accumulator retrieves, verifies and deserializes the accumulator of the given type and key.
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func (rs *RevocationStorage) accumulator(tx revStorage, typ CredentialTypeIdentifier, pkcounter uint) (
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	*revocation.SignedAccumulator, *revocation.Accumulator, error,
) {
	var err error
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	var sacc *revocation.SignedAccumulator
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	if rs.sqlMode {
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		record := &AccumulatorRecord{}
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		if err = tx.Last(record, map[string]interface{}{"cred_type": typ, "pk_counter": pkcounter}); err != nil {
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			if gorm.IsRecordNotFoundError(err) {
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				return nil, nil, nil
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			}
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		}
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		sacc = record.SignedAccumulator()
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	} else {
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		sacc = rs.memdb.SignedAccumulator(typ, pkcounter)
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		if sacc == nil {
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			return nil, nil, nil
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		}
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	}

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	pk, err := rs.Keys.PublicKey(typ.IssuerIdentifier(), sacc.PKCounter)
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	if err != nil {
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		return nil, nil, err
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	}
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	acc, err := sacc.UnmarshalVerify(pk)
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	if err != nil {
		return nil, nil, err
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	}
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	return sacc, acc, nil
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}

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// Methods to update from remote revocation server

func (rs *RevocationStorage) UpdateDB(typ CredentialTypeIdentifier) error {
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	updates, err := rs.client.FetchUpdateLatest(typ, RevocationDefaultEventCount)
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	if err != nil {
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		return err
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	}
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	for _, u := range updates {
		if err = rs.AddUpdate(typ, u); err != nil {
			return err
		}
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	}
	// bump updated even if no new records were added
	rs.getSettings(typ).updated = time.Now()
	return nil
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}

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func (rs *RevocationStorage) UpdateIfOld(typ CredentialTypeIdentifier) error {
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	settings := rs.getSettings(typ)
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	// update 10 seconds before the maximum, to stay below it
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	if settings.updated.Before(time.Now().Add(time.Duration(-settings.MaxNonrevocationDuration+10) * time.Second)) {
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		Logger.WithField("credtype", typ).Tracef("fetching revocation updates")
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		if err := rs.UpdateDB(typ); err != nil {
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			return err
		}
	}
	return nil
}

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// SaveIssuanceRecord either stores the issuance record locally, if we are the revocation server of
// the crecential type, or it signs and sends it to the remote revocation server.
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func (rs *RevocationStorage) SaveIssuanceRecord(typ CredentialTypeIdentifier, rec *IssuanceRecord, sk *gabi.PrivateKey) error {
	credtype := rs.conf.CredentialTypes[typ]
	if credtype == nil {
		return errors.New("unknown credential type")
	}
	if !credtype.SupportsRevocation() {
		return errors.New("cannot save issuance record: credential type does not support revocation")
	}

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	// Just store it if we are the revocation server for this credential type
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	settings := rs.getSettings(typ)
	if settings.Mode == RevocationModeServer {
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		return rs.AddIssuanceRecord(rec)
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	}

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	// We have to send it, sign it first
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	if settings.ServerURL == "" {
		return errors.New("cannot send issuance record: no server_url configured")
	}
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	rsk, err := sk.RevocationKey()
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	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
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	return rs.client.PostIssuanceRecord(typ, rsk, rec, settings.ServerURL)
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}

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// Misscelaneous methods

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func (rs *RevocationStorage) updateAccumulatorTimes(types []CredentialTypeIdentifier) error {
	return rs.db.Transaction(func(tx revStorage) error {
		var err error
		var records []AccumulatorRecord
		Logger.Tracef("updating accumulator times")
		if err = tx.Find(&records, "cred_type in (?)", types); err != nil {
			return err
		}
		for _, r := range records {
			pk, err := rs.Keys.PublicKey(r.CredType.IssuerIdentifier(), r.PKCounter)
			if err != nil {
				return err
			}
			sk, err := rs.Keys.PrivateKey(r.CredType.IssuerIdentifier(), r.PKCounter)
			if err != nil {
				return err
			}
			acc, err := r.SignedAccumulator().UnmarshalVerify(pk)
			if err != nil {
				return err
			}
			acc.Time = time.Now().Unix()
			sacc, err := acc.Sign(sk)
			if err != nil {
				return err
			}
			r.Data = signedMessage(sacc.Data)
			if err = tx.Save(r); err != nil {
				return err
			}
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			s := rs.getSettings(r.CredType)
			s.updated = time.Now()
			// POST record to listeners, if any, asynchroniously
			go rs.client.PostUpdate(r.CredType, s.PostURLs, &revocation.Update{SignedAccumulator: sacc})
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		}
		return nil
	})
}

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func (rs *RevocationStorage) Load(debug bool, dbtype, connstr string, settings map[CredentialTypeIdentifier]*RevocationSetting) error {
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	var t *CredentialTypeIdentifier
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	var ourtypes []CredentialTypeIdentifier
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	for typ, s := range settings {
		switch s.Mode {
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		case RevocationModeServer:
			if s.ServerURL != "" {
				return errors.New("server_url cannot be combined with server mode")
			}
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			ourtypes = append(ourtypes, typ)
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			t = &typ
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		case RevocationModeProxy:
			t = &typ
		case RevocationModeRequestor: // noop
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		default:
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			return errors.Errorf(`invalid revocation mode "%s" for %s (supported: "%s", "%s", "%s")`,
				s.Mode, typ, RevocationModeRequestor, RevocationModeServer, RevocationModeProxy)
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		}
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	}
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	if t != nil && connstr == "" {
		return errors.Errorf("revocation mode for %s requires SQL database but no connection string given", *t)
	}
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	if len(ourtypes) > 0 {
		rs.conf.Scheduler.Every(revocationAccumulatorUpdateInterval).Seconds().Do(func() {
			if err := rs.updateAccumulatorTimes(ourtypes); err != nil {
				err = errors.WrapPrefix(err, "failed to write updated accumulator record", 0)
				raven.CaptureError(err, nil)
			}
		})
	}

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	if connstr == "" {
		Logger.Trace("Using memory revocation database")
		rs.memdb = newMemStorage()
		rs.sqlMode = false
	} else {
		Logger.Trace("Connecting to revocation SQL database")
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		db, err := newSqlStorage(debug, dbtype, connstr)
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		if err != nil {
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			return err
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		}
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		rs.db = db
		rs.sqlMode = true
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	}
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	if settings != nil {
		rs.settings = settings
	} else {
		rs.settings = map[CredentialTypeIdentifier]*RevocationSetting{}
	}
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	for id, settings := range rs.settings {
		if settings.MaxNonrevocationDuration != 0 && settings.MaxNonrevocationDuration < 30 {
			return errors.Errorf("max_nonrev_duration setting for %s must be at least 30 seconds, was %d",
				id, settings.MaxNonrevocationDuration)
		}
	}
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	rs.client = RevocationClient{Conf: rs.conf}
	rs.Keys = RevocationKeys{Conf: rs.conf}
	return nil
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}

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func (rs *RevocationStorage) Close() error {
	if rs.db != nil {
		return rs.db.Close()
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	}
	return nil
}

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// SetRevocationUpdates retrieves the latest revocation records from the database, and attaches
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// them to the request, for each credential type for which a nonrevocation proof is requested in
// b.Revocation.
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func (rs *RevocationStorage) SetRevocationUpdates(b *BaseRequest) error {
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	if len(b.Revocation) == 0 {
		return nil
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	}
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	var err error
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	b.RevocationUpdates = make(map[CredentialTypeIdentifier]map[uint]*revocation.Update, len(b.Revocation))
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	for _, credid := range b.Revocation {
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		if !rs.conf.CredentialTypes[credid].SupportsRevocation() {
			return errors.Errorf("cannot request nonrevocation proof for %s: revocation not enabled in scheme")
		}
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Sietse Ringers committed
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		if err = rs.UpdateIfOld(credid); err != nil {
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			updated := rs.getSettings(credid).updated
			if !updated.IsZero() {
				Logger.Warnf("failed to fetch revocation updates for %s, nonrevocation is guaranteed only until %s ago:",
					credid, time.Now().Sub(updated).String())
				Logger.Warn(err)
			} else {
				Logger.Errorf("revocation is disabled for %s: failed to fetch revocation updates and none are known locally", credid)
				Logger.Warn(err)
				// We can offer no nonrevocation guarantees at all while the requestor explicitly
				// asked for it; fail the session by returning an error
				return err
			}
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		}
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		b.RevocationUpdates[credid], err = rs.UpdateLatest(credid, RevocationDefaultEventCount)
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		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
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	}
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	return nil
}

func (rs *RevocationStorage) getSettings(typ CredentialTypeIdentifier) *RevocationSetting {
	if rs.settings[typ] == nil {
		rs.settings[typ] = &RevocationSetting{}
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	}
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	s := rs.settings[typ]
	if s.MaxNonrevocationDuration == 0 {
		s.MaxNonrevocationDuration = revocationMaxAccumulatorAge
	}
	return s
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}

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func (client RevocationClient) PostUpdate(typ CredentialTypeIdentifier, urls []string, update *revocation.Update) {
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	transport := NewHTTPTransport("")
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	transport.Binary = true
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	for _, url := range urls {
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		err := transport.Post(fmt.Sprintf("%s/revocation/update/%s", url, typ.String()), nil, update)
		if err != nil {
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			Logger.Warn("error sending revocation update", err)
		}
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	}
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}

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func (client RevocationClient) PostIssuanceRecord(typ CredentialTypeIdentifier, sk *revocation.PrivateKey, rec *IssuanceRecord, url string) error {
	message, err := signed.MarshalSign(sk.ECDSA, rec)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}
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	return NewHTTPTransport(url).Post(
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		fmt.Sprintf("revocation/issuancerecord/%s/%d", typ, sk.Counter), nil, []byte(message),
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	)
}

// FetchRevocationRecords gets revocation update messages from the revocation server, of the specified index and greater.
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func (client RevocationClient) FetchUpdateFrom(typ CredentialTypeIdentifier, pkcounter uint, index uint64) (*revocation.Update, error) {
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	update := &revocation.Update{}
	return update, client.getMultiple(
		client.Conf.CredentialTypes[typ].RevocationServers,
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		fmt.Sprintf("revocation/updatefrom/%s/%d/%d", typ, pkcounter, index),
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		&update,
	)
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}
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func (client RevocationClient) FetchUpdateLatest(typ CredentialTypeIdentifier, count uint64) (map[uint]*revocation.Update, error) {
	update := map[uint]*revocation.Update{}
	return update, client.getMultiple(
		client.Conf.CredentialTypes[typ].RevocationServers,
		fmt.Sprintf("revocation/updatelatest/%s/%d", typ, count),
		&update,
	)
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}

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func (RevocationClient) getMultiple(urls []string, path string, dest interface{}) error {
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	var (
		errs      multierror.Error
		transport = NewHTTPTransport("")
	)
	transport.Binary = true
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	for _, url := range urls {
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		transport.Server = url
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		err := transport.Get(path, dest)
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		if err == nil {
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			return nil
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		} else {
			errs.Errors = append(errs.Errors, err)
		}
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	}
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	return &errs
}

func (rs RevocationKeys) PrivateKeyLatest(issid IssuerIdentifier) (*revocation.PrivateKey, error) {
	sk, err := rs.Conf.PrivateKeyLatest(issid)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, err
	}
	if sk == nil {
		return nil, errors.Errorf("unknown private key: %s", issid)
	}
	revsk, err := sk.RevocationKey()
	if err != nil {
		return nil, err
	}
	return revsk, nil
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}

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func (rs RevocationKeys) PrivateKey(issid IssuerIdentifier, counter uint) (*revocation.PrivateKey, error) {
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	sk, err := rs.Conf.PrivateKey(issid, counter)
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	if err != nil {
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		return nil, err
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	}
	if sk == nil {
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		return nil, errors.Errorf("unknown private key: %s", issid)
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	}
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	revsk, err := sk.RevocationKey()
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	if err != nil {
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		return nil, err
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	}
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	return revsk, nil
}
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func (rs RevocationKeys) PublicKey(issid IssuerIdentifier, counter uint) (*revocation.PublicKey, error) {
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	pk, err := rs.Conf.PublicKey(issid, counter)
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	if err != nil {
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		return nil, err
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	}
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	if pk == nil {
		return nil, errors.Errorf("unknown public key: %s-%d", issid, counter)
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	}
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	revpk, err := pk.RevocationKey()
	if err != nil {
		return nil, err
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	}
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	return revpk, nil
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}
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// Conversion methods to/from database structs, SQL table rows, gob

func (e *EventRecord) Event() *revocation.Event {
	return &revocation.Event{
		Index:      e.Index,
		E:          (*big.Int)(e.E),
		ParentHash: revocation.Hash(e.ParentHash),
	}
}

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func (e *EventRecord) Convert(typ CredentialTypeIdentifier, pkcounter uint, event *revocation.Event) *EventRecord {
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	*e = EventRecord{
		Index:      event.Index,
		E:          (*RevocationAttribute)(event.E),
		ParentHash: eventHash(event.ParentHash),
		CredType:   typ,
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		PKCounter:  pkcounter,
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	}
	return e
}

func (a *AccumulatorRecord) SignedAccumulator() *revocation.SignedAccumulator {
	return &revocation.SignedAccumulator{
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		PKCounter: a.PKCounter,
		Data:      signed.Message(a.Data),
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	}
}

func (a *AccumulatorRecord) Convert(typ CredentialTypeIdentifier, sacc *revocation.SignedAccumulator) *AccumulatorRecord {
	*a = AccumulatorRecord{
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		Data:      signedMessage(sacc.Data),
		PKCounter: sacc.PKCounter,
		CredType:  typ,
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	}
	return a
}

func (signedMessage) GormDataType(dialect gorm.Dialect) string {
	switch dialect.GetName() {
	case "postgres":
		return "bytea"
	case "mysql":
		return "blob"
	default:
		return ""
	}
}

// Value implements driver.Valuer, for SQL marshaling (to []byte).
func (i *RevocationAttribute) Value() (driver.Value, error) {
	return (*big.Int)(i).Bytes(), nil
}

// Scan implements sql.Scanner, for SQL unmarshaling (from a []byte).
func (i *RevocationAttribute) Scan(src interface{}) error {
	b, ok := src.([]byte)
	if !ok {
		return errors.New("cannot convert source: not a byte slice")
	}
	(*big.Int)(i).SetBytes(b)
	return nil
}

func (RevocationAttribute) GormDataType(dialect gorm.Dialect) string {
	switch dialect.GetName() {
	case "postgres":
		return "bytea"
	case "mysql":
		return "blob"
	default:
		return ""
	}
}

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func (i *RevocationAttribute) MarshalCBOR() ([]byte, error) {
	return cbor.Marshal((*big.Int)(i), cbor.EncOptions{})
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}

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func (i *RevocationAttribute) UnmarshalCBOR(data []byte) error {
	return cbor.Unmarshal(data, (*big.Int)(i))
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}

func (hash eventHash) Value() (driver.Value, error) {
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	return []byte(hash), nil
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}

func (hash *eventHash) Scan(src interface{}) error {
	s, ok := src.([]byte)
	if !ok {
		return errors.New("cannot convert source: not a []byte")
	}
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	*hash = make([]